Hacker Noon

Nhom VBC CHROMIA AMA TRANSCRIPT (15/05/2020)

Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
First of all, can you have a brief introduction about yourself as well as about Chromia? Henrik_hjelte, Sergelubkin
Henrik Hjelte:
Hello. My name is Henrik Hjelte. I am Co-Founder and CEO of Chromia.
I have more than 30 years of experience in programming and a degree in Economics from Uppsala University.
BTW economics and computers = blockchain, so finally found a job that fits me.
I was introduced to the blockchain by the leader of the colored-coins project Alex Mizrahi in 2013
Colored coins project was a very influential thing
It was the first way for user created tokens
bolted on to the only blockchain at the time (almost) bitcoin
We started ChromaWay 2014, with Or Perelman too, to explore if the world was interested in “tokens” and those kind of applications
We worked with enterprise blockchain for some time, but now we are focused on Chromia, a new public platform for mainstream decentralized applications using relational blockchain technology.
Ok, maybe I should tell something about Chromia and not myself too.
Chromia is a better blockchain for building decentralized Apps.
better because it follows the “normal worlds” way of managing data.
A little history: I found a text/description to paste:
Chromia is a brainchild of ChromaWay. ChromaWay has a long record of delivering pioneering projects around the world. We issued Euros on the Bitcoin blockchain with LHV bank, allowed investors to invest in startups in a wholly decentralized way with Funderbeam, digitized the title transfer process with the Swedish land registry, and mediated the green bond market. ChromaWay’s core team created the world’s first protocol to issue tokens already in 2012, when blockchain was called “bitcoin 2.0”. Then ChromaWay introduced the relational model to enterprise blockchains with a consortium database called Postchain. Now Postchain is going public as the foundation for Chromia, a better blockchain for building decentralised Apps.
Chromia is a new public blockchain based on the idea of integrating traditional databases, Relational databases with blockchain security. Chromia is a general purpose blockchain with full smart contract capabilities, just that it is a lot easier to code, even complex applications. You code with an easy to learn new programming language that combines the power of SQL and normal languages but makes it secure in a blockchain context. Up to 1/10 the code-lines vs other blockchains.
If you don’t believe me, check this blog (later, stay in the chat):
https://blog.chromia.com/reasons-for-rell-compactness/
The aim of Chromia is to combine relational databases, which exist in every kind of organization, with blockchains. We want to provide a platform for our users to develop totally decentralized apps securely. Our goal is for Chromia to be seen as the number one infrastructure for decentralized applications.
Think about it: blockchain is about managing data (in a shared context).
And… What do we use to manage data? A Database!
Serge:
Sure! My name is Serge! And I work in Chromia marketing department. Also, I help coordinate various projects inside the company
My background is in Economics and Marketing
Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
Question 1️⃣
DApp is currently mainly concentrated in the field of games, and its life cycle is basically short, just like the Crypto Kitty is only hot for a while, how to dig the application of DApp in more fields and how to improve the utilization rate of DApp? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Serge:
Good one, let me answer
Gaming is quite a challenging target because good UX is expected, it needs to be fast, responsive, etc. If we can do that, then we can also do all sorts of other stuff.
Also, it lets us experiment with things without a lot of hassle, it’s easier to get users, and so on. It’s also a growing niche within blockchain. You can check our latest game, Mines of Dalarnia https://www.minesofdalarnia.com
We also have Enterprise projects already, for example Green Assets Wallet https://greenassetswallet.org/about that already launched on the first Mainnet version called Bootstrap Net,we also have https://capchap.se built on our tech, more projects like non-profit review platform Impactoria, public land registries, medical projects and so on
Also don’t forget about our fully decentralized social network/forum that is live already on the testnet https://testnet.chromunity.com.
Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
Question 2️⃣
How will dapp face the world change after the epidemic? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Henrik Hjelte:
Nobody can say for sure, but maybe people will tend to be online more than offline, so demand on online products and dapps as well will increase.
I just came in from an internal demo of a secret project we do, and it can be seen as a way to hang out online (a bit cryptic answer)
There are also interesting use cases of dapps in the medical field.
For example, we participated in the world-wide hackathon Hack for Sweden. Where our submission was to create an app on Chromia blockchain that increases the coordination between countries and hospitals especially during the hard time and COVID19.
Chromia wants to help the European Union (and the world, but we saw problems in the EU…) and its citizens to provide transparency over the necessary medical and protective devices and appliances of which we see shortage during this emergency crisis.
You can watch our promo here https://twitter.com/chromaway/status/1247557274337447938?s=20.
For me it was a fun Hackathon too because for once I got the opportunity to code… I told everyone else I will not do any bossing…
We try to continue this path on medical applications a bit.
Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
Question 3️⃣
DApps are still not directly embedded in mobile phones like Apps at this moment, and DApps have also been flooded with bet content. How can guests increase the use of DApps and lower the threshold for using DApps? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Serge:
The answer is — better User Experience. We believe that in order for a DApp to be usable and become more widely accepted it has to feel like a normal App. A DApp needs to have quick transactions, scale well & shouldn’t require users to pay for each transaction. This is something that is possible now with using Chromia. It’s an extremely exciting time since we are going to see a new generation of DApps.
On top of that, we think that we might have an ace coming up. We have built a game to demonstrate the powers and possibilities of Chromia. A little bit about the game: In Mines of Dalarnia (https://www.minesofdalarnia.com), players get to explore the vast expanses of interplanetary treasure mines. With an innovative Dalarnia Token system, players can purchase virtual mining plots, and put them up for rent into the community, allowing for real-estate tycoons to earn more Tokens. Mining plots can also undergo their own upgrades, making them more lucrative to explore, as well as a hot property for rental by miners. The game takes advantage of these NFT-based tokens to securely track exchanges, and provide a sense of ownership and wealth to players as they grow their mining and resource empire.
Watch our trailer https://youtu.be/bDXKOp1Asqw and sign-up for the TestNet on the website!
Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
Question 4️⃣
Many practitioners think that the main reason for restricting the development of DApp is “incomplete infrastructure”. How effective is the current “cross-chain” and “side-chain” solution? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Serge:
Our infrastructure resembles Alibaba Cloud, so a DApp developer just goes and deploys his DApp’s blockchain into it, it’s easy. Also our language Rell https://rell.chromia.com/en/maste is more robust than any other blockchain programming language.Or Azure or AWS
Rell combines the following features:
  1. Relational data modeling and queries similar to SQL. People familiar with SQL should feel at home once they learn the new syntax.
  2. Normal programming constructs: variables, loops, functions, collections, etc.
  3. Constructs which specifically target application backends and, in particular, blockchain-style programming including request routing, authorization, etc.
Rell aims to make programming as convenient and simple as possible. It minimizes boilerplate and repetition. At the same time, as a static type system it can detect and prevent many kinds of defects prior to run-time.
Maybe Henrik wants to add something. :)
Henrik Hjelte:
Yes, I can add some thing
Consider again the real /normal world. What made the apps you use every day? Behind the bank app is a relational database. Web 1.0, “shopping on the internet” was a relational database hooked up to a webpage.
web 2.0: Thefacebook was PhP and MySQL hack
again, a relational database.
So, we aim to make it just as easy to do decentralized apps as normal apps.
Also “the cloud” inspiration is more normal. In Chromia, the dapp developer pays for hosting the application (normally). Not the USERS.
No gas,this is a big usability improvement.
Thai Nhat Minh | Stably:
Question 5️⃣
There are many DApp development platforms on the market. What are the competitive advantages of Chromia? It can be explained in terms of development cost and ease of use that everyone is more concerned about. u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Henrik Hjelte:
This what I’m talking about. I think “Ease of use” combined with “Power” is our biggest strength.
Easiness is our core feature thanks to the relational database aspect of our system. Relational databases are run by 85% of the enterprise market at the moment.
And used in 100% of all organizations.
The largest vendor on that market Oracle, has a bigger market cap than bitcoin,
So, this makes it easy for enterprises to integrate our tech stack to their normal systems without the need to redo them, like in most cases where blockchain pilots have failed.
That’s partially why we had success with enterprise customer which are live in the Chromia network.
And: there is a large set of features that relational databases have that alternatives (noSQL) do not have or do not do as well.
And blockchain is very primitive compared to that.
Data indepence, mathematical foundations etc. Large books have been written about it…
On Chromiam It’s very easy for developers to deploy DApps because they already know SQL-style programming. Keep in mind that we worked with customers and developers to build our tech stack while solving problems for them. We didn’t build something unneeded, we had proof of validation from the market.
SQL is top 3rd language in the world (after HTML and javascript).
source: stackoverflow survey 2019, among 90 000 developers…
Top 4 used databases: different flavors of SQL (relational databases)
So, they are used for a reason: Ease of use/programming, power etc.
Also, Rell is our language, is statically typed (means bugs are discovered when programs are written rather than we they run). It is also more compact, up to 1/7 of the code lines of SQL. And have “normal” programming constructs + blockchain programming built in.
Because we require both relational database properties and more security than SQL, currently Rell is the only choice. It is really easy to learn, please go check https://rell.chromia.com/en/maste.
Chromia also provides news to the database developer community….
millions of developers in potential.
OK, bear this in mind when you wonder how we can compete with blockchain X… Blockchain X is a fart in the ocean compare to the SQL world 😊
Bach Tuyet
You have organized many AMA sessions to the international community in general and Vietnam in particular. What do you most want to get after AMA sessions from the community? u/henrik_hjelte
Sergey
I’ll take this one:) our goal is to grow the community
  1. We want people to join our channels such as telegram, twitter, email also our decentralized forum https://testnet.chromunity.com and participate in discussions
  2. We want people to try our dapps such as Mines of Dalarnia
  3. We want to get feedback and understand the most important issues people care about Chromia and the blockchain industry in general
  4. We want to get more developers building on top of Chromia
LBTS:
What was your motivation for creating RELL and not use other languages? What benefits? Why name it RELL also?
Henrik Hjelte:
We have a private/federated relational blockchain called Postchain, and it allows SQL. But that can work in a small environment when you know all parties, and if you are really careful in checking code. But not for a more secure, distributed on the web setup, so we had to make it more secure (Deterministic, statically typed).
In the process, we also took the opportunity to make it cool and nice.
Also: it is simply not possibly to use evm, jvm, or web assembly. We need/want a database in the bottom. Postgresql is our virtual machine. You do not reimplement that…. 10+ years codebase….
Lee:
Being part of the gamer community, I would like to know what you would think about collaborating with a MOBA, RPG or Arcade game or some kind of project?
Henrik Hjelte:
We are already collaborating with some smaller studios. For bigger fish, we want to show them what is completely unique and visionary with Chromia, and we think we need various examples. So, first arcade game MoD (linked above) is one example, it is not the full potential or anything but a start. In this summer, krystopia 2 a puzzle game from Antler Interactive will be released.
What is even cooler is the “demo project” we do together with them, where we will show how a mutliplayer game with real blockchain features will work.
I just saw it an hour ago and was blown away
OH, and there is another studio releasing something very cool. Full logic on chain strategy game. Chain of Alliance.
oyibo pepper:
Do you encourage HACKATHON programs for intending Developers to test their skills and build on RELL
Can you explain more about CHROMIA AMBASSADORS PROGRAM, CAN I BECOME AN AMBASSADOR
Serge:
Yes, you can, but you will need to change your avatar 🤣
Seriously, we are growing our Chromians community if you want to become one please ping our admins in Chromia telegram group.
Also, we are planning virtual hackathons soon, please subscribe to stay updated
Infinite Crypto:
Since the Chromia project is currently working on the Ethereum blockchain ERC20 standard!
But we know that there are a lot of scalability issues with Ethereum, so why would you choose the Ethereum blockchain over other scalable blockchains? Do you have any plans for Mainnet launch of Chromia?
Henrik Hjelte:
ETH is just used in a pre-phase for tokens. We will have our own mainnet tokens interchangable with ETH.
Oyinbo pepper
What’s CHROMIA SSO and SDK, how can I get started
Henrik Hjelte
Both are 3 letters. That is what they have in common.
SDK = software development kit, check docs on https://rell.chromia.com
SSO = single sign on. A unique UX improvement. You approve an app in your wallet (vault) with super ease. no need to remember codes
sso: https://blog.chromia.com/chromia-sso-the-whys-and-the-whats/
We have a fundamentally different model from bitcoin and ethereum and the likes. The blockchain is not run by anonymous computers in basement and student dorms across the world. We have more of known identities, so 51% attacks is protected not by PoW/PoS but other consensus. Please see our whitepaper. Note that we are not noobs when it comes to this, our CTO Alex has published papers in academic journals on consensus etc. from 2013, and done several important ideas for blockchain. Sidechains we think he was first with, tokens too.
Sheron Fernando:
Is there any plan to makes partnership with local cryptocurrency developers from each country to make $CHR usage more worldwide?
Serge:
Yes, we are looking for cooperation with more external developers. Send me a message if you are interested in developing something on Chromia.
Stella:
What are the underlying problems in the Dapps today that can be solved with the Chromia protocol?
Serge:
  1. Scalability — on Chromia your dapp can have unlimited numbers of users thanks to parallel scaling
  2. Easiness of use — you don’t need external wallets, no need to buy crypto to pay for gas etc
  3. Cost — in general to deploy the dapp and to use the dapp
Marcel Lagacé:
Why build this platform? What is Chromia mission? What are the most prominent features of the platform? Can you clarify the use case for this feature?
Henrik Hjelte:
We build the platform to fix the problems with blockchains, that we ourselves have experienced since 2014 (before ethereum existed).
LBTS:
Can you tell us about Chromia developers? How motivated and experienced are they to always deliver the best products?
Henrik Hjelte:
I can tell you that we recruit developers that are really good, from all parts of the world. Vietnam has been a hub because we found many good, so in Ukraine.
How can we say “we have so good developers”? First one thing that is a bit different is that we are pretty experienced in leadership team of development. I do not code much anymore since I’m a CEO. But I do have now over 30 years of experience. Got published and was payed when I was 15. First full-time professional developer job at 18. Have released open-source projects used by 10: s of thousand developers.
And Alex, our CTO is Extremely good. That is why I recruited him to my old startup 2006 or so… So: we have experience to sort out good developers from bad.
Marcel Lagacé:
Does Chromia staking model is different from other staking platform??
What are the beneficial advantages of chromia staking system?
Serge:
The main difference is that we have independent Providers, entities that are not connected. These serious players are exchanges, data centres, professional staking companies. They provide a backbone of the ecosystem and host dapps. Like Amazon servers in the cloud. They cannot have stake bigger than the maximum thus they can’t control the network. This is probably the main difference with classic DPoS networks
Nguyen Duy Bao:
A lot of people will want to know what the strength of Chromia is but I want to know the weaknesses and problems Chromia faces ? How do you plan to solve it?
Henrik Hjelte:
A weakness I guess is weak compared to “competition”. And there are some blockchain projects that got crazy amount of funding. So how can we compete with that, when they can hire more developers for example? Well here is what experience comes into play: More developers does not always increase productivity a lot, it is diminishing returns. You can see many large projects, with 100 of developers fail miserably with no results.
And actually, sometimes true with marketing spend too. It is generally good with money, but if you are a bit clever you can compete also on marketing with less money than your competition.
Please follow Chromia on Social Media:
Website: https://www.chromia.com
Twitter: https://twitter.com/chromia
FaceBook: https://www.facebook.com/teamchromia
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/chromia
Telegram: https://t.me/hellochromia
Decentralized Social network Chromunity: https://testnet.chromunity.com
Free-to-Play Blockchain Game Mines of Dalarnia: https://www.minesofdalarnia.com
submitted by dam30 to Teamchromia [link] [comments]

Tron v10.8.9 (2020-01-11) // Fix Internet Connectivity Check bug; fix obscure MBAM launch bug; fix SIV crash on Win10 Insider builds

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a Tech on a thumb drive that automates ~85% of the tedious work in cleaning a Windows system, with some things left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | Manual tools
Saves a log to C:\logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v10.9.0 (2020-01-13)
! Fix script-breaking syntax bug in Stage 3
v10.8.9 (2020-01-11)
! Fix bluescreen/greenscreen crash on Win10 insider builds when pulling system information using siv.exe. Thanks to u/iamzacharyrs
! Fix error where we'd attempt to launch %MBAM% but the variable was empty. Thanks to u/thementallydeceased
! Fix bug where we were inadvertently disabling the Internet Connectivity Check, which makes Office 365 unhappy. Thanks to u/shadenoah
* Definition and sub-tool updates

Download

  1. Primary method: Download the .torrent.
  2. Secondary: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX u/SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY u/danodemano
    #3 link link DE u/bodrino
    #4 link link US/EU u/mxmod
    #5 link --- US-MI u/ajcutshall
    #6 link --- AU u/agent-squirrel
    #7 link --- GB-LND u/FreezerMoosh
    #8 link --- US-MO u/OlderGeeks
    #9 link --- Amazon CDN u/helpdesktv
    #10 link --- Global CDN Softpedia
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the Syncthing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you understand them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    Source code is available on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~600MB package, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. Switches are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective default when used. See here for a list of command-line switches.

Pack Integrity

SHA-256 hashes are contained in \tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt and are signed with my PGP key; included. Use this to verify pack integrity.

Donations

Tron will always be free and open-source. If you'd like to buy me a beer or ... more importantly Scotch... you can waste money here:
and I guarantee it will go to waste
  • Patreon
  • Bitcoin: 1Biw8gx2kD7mZf66ZdNgB9tG1pE9YA3kEd
  • Bitcoin Cash: 18sXTTrAViPZVQtm63zBK6aCK3XfJpEThk
  • Monero (preferred): 4GG9KsJhwcW3zapDw62UaS71ZfFBjH9uwhc8FeyocPhUHHsuxj5zfvpZpZcZFHWpxoXD99MVt6PnR9QfftXDV8s6HbYdDuZEDZ947uiEje
These addresses go directly to u/vocatus. If you wish to support another volunteer (e.g. the incredibly generous u/SGC-Hosting) please contact them directly.

Problems and Support

Please look here first for a list of common issues (Tron appearing to be stalled, etc). If it doesn't answer your issue, make a top-level post to TronScript and myself or one of the community members will look at the issue. Additionally, you can reach me 24/7 on Keybase.
\integrity verification contains checksums.txt and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2, pubkey included). Use this to verify the pack.
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

BetHash - How Provably Fair Isn't as Fair as it Looks

BetHash - How Provably Fair Isn't as Fair as it Looks
https://preview.redd.it/sm725nui67441.png?width=1020&format=png&auto=webp&s=20a9e7ff2f304064facd7be546e1f0ec2548daee
In our previous post, we took a look at how Bethash uses an entirely new system to prove fairness, as compared to cryptocurrency casinos that use an older system, known as ‘provably fair’.
In this article, we will explore the practicality of an absolutely fair casino and identify some of the flaws that exist in the provably fair system. These issues, in addition to some other limitations of the technology, are what prompted the BetHash team to begin using blockchain-based provable fairness.

Quick Recap on Fairness: 3 versus 21

If you remember correctly, our previous article explained the basics of how the provably fair system works. The provably fair system works because of 3 components: the server seed, client seed, and the nonce.
Now, for the sake of argument, if any two of these three components are compromised, then the security of the provably fair system breaks down. We will get into the specifics of how this might occur in the next section.
The way BetHash differs here is in fact of a simple numbers game. Instead of relying on three components as per typical provably fair casinos, BethHash relies on the 21 block producers of the EOS blockchain network.
As we have previously explained, the EOS network has a decentralized network of 21 block producers that secure the blockchain network against mutability. If you were to somehow trying to alter the results of BetHash, you would first have to first corrupt at least 11 of the 21 EOS block producers, which is a practically impossible task, since each block producer is voted into position by tens of thousands of EOS users.
Because of this, subvert even one of the EOS block producers is a nigh-impossible task, since every EOS block producer is a well-known, reputable force in the EOS community.

How is the Provably Fair System Corruptible?

The answer to this question lies more in human error and human nature rather than the technology itself. The implementation of the provably fair system differs from casino to casino, which can mean different casinos have loopholes not present in most others.
Then comes the concept of a Zero-day attack. Consider this; the first generation of online casinos used random number generators (RNGs) to ensure fairness until it was discovered that RNGs were not secured enough. This was primarily due to the faulty implementation of the number generation algorithm. A great example is this case, where one person was able to accurately figure out how the cards were being shuffled in an online poker game, despite them being arranged using random numbers.
A Zero-day attack can be defined as the exploitation of faulty code or faulty implementation of a perfectly fine code despite the implementor (in this case, a casino) knowing about this vulnerability. With this in mind, let's take a look at two examples of how a provably fair system could have hidden vulnerabilities:

Example 1: Nonce overflow

This vulnerability has to do with a faulty way of storing the nonce in an unsecured unsigned integer variable. This could, in turn, lead the nonce variable to overflow after a certain number of bets have been made and cause it to return 0, resulting in every future roll to become predictable.
For a detailed explanation of how a Nonce overflow flaw works, visit this article.

Example 2: Force-It Box

In this second example, one programmer was able to detect two vulnerabilities in the way the provably fair system was implemented by one bitcoin dice site. First, the programmer discovered that there was no way for the client-side seed to be entered in the roll, which meant the website could still manipulate the results.
But the second and the bigger vulnerability was caused by the fact that the starting seed was exposed, giving anyone with enough gusto the ability to brute force the encryption and predict all the rolls.
For a detailed overview of how the Force-It Box vulnerability works, visit this GitHub post.

In Summary

As you can see, although implementing a provably fair system is certainly a step in the right direction towards fairness, faulty implementations can cause the system to break down. On the other hand, with BetHash you are putting your trust in 21 incorruptible factors (EOS block producers) making BetHash a pioneering endeavor towards the evolution of fairness in online games.
https://preview.redd.it/kbv1rwfh67441.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=a79ef3286f81ccfe2a2473ee88ec2335e93c7e8a
Want to receive 100 Bonus Spins to help kick start your epic BetHash journey? Simply click here and follow the instructions to begin.
submitted by bethashio to bethashcasino [link] [comments]

Buona spiegazione di meltdown & spectre.

Tl;dr: Ci sono due bug nella gestione di memoria di tutte le CPU in uso da 20 anni a questa parte. Il loro effetto è di permettere ad un processo in stato non privilegiato di leggere la memoria del kernel (Meltdown) e/o di un altro processo (Spectre). Questo si può usare (ad esempio) per fare un keylogger e leggere password, # di carta di credito etc. mentre vengono scritti. I possibili exploit funzionano su tutti i sistemi operativi (sì, anche sui telefoni, e sui dispositivi IOT, e sugli embedded), ipervisori (sì, anche cross-domain) e da ogni tipo di userspace - in particolare al momento è possibile farlo da uno snippet javascript che giri nella finestra di un browser. Non riesco a immaginare un motivo per cui non si possa fare da PHP, che so, in un plugin di wordpress. Le patch, che non sono ancora state messe in distribuzione generale, sono efficaci solo contro Meltdown (Spectre è più difficile da sfruttare, per fortuna, ma è anche capito peggio). Non solo, ma rallentano le prestazioni (fino al 20% in alcuni benchmark di postgres) e aumentano l'uso della CPU (un cloud provider ha visto la CPU post-patch raddoppiare).
Buon 20181.
1) Primo tentativo di aggiornare il kernel di una VM (presumibilmente con la patch anti-Meltdown). Risultato: VM non-bootabile. Groan.
*"By now, most of you have probably already heard of the biggest disaster in the history of IT – Meltdown and Spectre security vulnerabilities which affect all modern CPUs, from those in desktops and servers, to ones found in smartphones. Unfortunately, there's much confusion about the level of threat we're dealing with here, because some of the impacted vendors need reasons to explain the still-missing security patches. But even those who did release a patch, avoid mentioning that it only partially addresses the threat. And, there's no good explanation of these vulnerabilities on the right level (not for developers), something that just about anyone working in IT could understand to make their own conclusion. So, I decided to give it a shot and deliver just that.
First, some essential background. Both vulnerabilities leverage the "speculative execution" feature, which is central to the modern CPU architecture. Without this, processors would idle most of the time, just waiting to receive I/O results from various peripheral devices, which are all at least 10x slower than processors. For example, RAM – kind of the fastest thing out there in our mind – runs at comparable frequencies with CPU, but all overclocking enthusiasts know that RAM I/O involves multiple stages, each taking multiple CPU cycles. And hard disks are at least a hundred times slower than RAM. So, instead of waiting for the real result of some IF clause to be calculated, the processor assumes the most probable result, and continues the execution according to the assumed result. Then, many cycles later, when the actual result of said IF is known, if it was "guessed" right – then we're already way ahead in the program code execution path, and didn't just waste all those cycles waiting for the I/O operation to complete. However, if it appears that the assumption was incorrect - then, the execution state of that "parallel universe" is simply discarded, and program execution is restarted back from said IF clause (as if speculative execution did not exist). But, since those prediction algorithms are pretty smart and polished, more often than not the guesses are right, which adds significant boost to execution performance for some software. Speculative execution is a feature that processors had for two decades now, which is also why any CPU that is still able to run these days is affected.
Now, while the two vulnerabilities are distinctly different, they share one thing in common – and that is, they exploit the cornerstone of computer security, and specifically the process isolation. Basically, the security of all operating systems and software is completely dependent on the native ability of CPUs to ensure complete process isolation in terms of them being able to access each other's memory. How exactly is such isolation achieved? Instead of having direct physical RAM access, all processes operate in virtual address spaces, which are mapped to physical RAM in the way that they do not overlap. These memory allocations are performed and controlled in hardware, in the so-called Memory Management Unit (MMU) of CPU.
At this point, you already know enough to understand Meltdown. This vulnerability is basically a bug in MMU logic, and is caused by skipping address checks during the speculative execution (rumors are, there's the source code comment saying this was done "not to break optimizations"). So, how can this vulnerability be exploited? Pretty easily, in fact. First, the malicious code should trick a processor into the speculative execution path, and from there, perform an unrestricted read of another process' memory. Simple as that. Now, you may rightfully wonder, wouldn't the results obtained from such a speculative execution be discarded completely, as soon as CPU finds out it "took a wrong turn"? You're absolutely correct, they are in fact discarded... with one exception – they will remain in the CPU cache, which is a completely dumb thing that just caches everything CPU accesses. And, while no process can read the content of the CPU cache directly, there's a technique of how you can "read" one implicitly by doing legitimate RAM reads within your process, and measuring the response times (anything stored in the CPU cache will obviously be served much faster). You may have already heard that browser vendors are currently busy releasing patches that makes JavaScript timers more "coarse" - now you know why (but more on this later).
As far as the impact goes, Meltdown is limited to Intel and ARM processors only, with AMD CPUs unaffected. But for Intel, Meltdown is extremely nasty, because it is so easy to exploit – one of our enthusiasts compiled the exploit literally over a morning coffee, and confirmed it works on every single computer he had access to (in his case, most are Linux-based). And possibilities Meltdown opens are truly terrifying, for example how about obtaining admin password as it is being typed in another process running on the same OS? Or accessing your precious bitcoin wallet? Of course, you'll say that the exploit must first be delivered to the attacked computer and executed there – which is fair, but here's the catch: JavaScript from some web site running in your browser will do just fine too, so the delivery part is the easiest for now. By the way, keep in mind that those 3rd party ads displayed on legitimate web sites often include JavaScript too – so it's really a good idea to install ad blocker now, if you haven't already! And for those using Chrome, enabling Site Isolation feature is also a good idea.
OK, so let's switch to Spectre next. This vulnerability is known to affect all modern CPUs, albeit to a different extent. It is not based on a bug per say, but rather on a design peculiarity of the execution path prediction logic, which is implemented by so-called Branch Prediction Unit (BPU). Essentially, what BPU does is accumulating statistics to estimate the probability of IF clause results. For example, if certain IF clause that compares some variable to zero returned FALSE 100 times in a row, you can predict with high probability that the clause will return FALSE when called for the 101st time, and speculatively move along the corresponding code execution branch even without having to load the actual variable. Makes perfect sense, right? However, the problem here is that while collecting this statistics, BPU does NOT distinguish between different processes for added "learning" effectiveness – which makes sense too, because computer programs share much in common (common algorithms, constructs implementation best practices and so on). And this is exactly what the exploit is based on: this peculiarity allows the malicious code to basically "train" BPU by running a construct that is identical to one in the attacked process hundreds of times, effectively enabling it to control speculative execution of the attacked process once it hits its own respective construct, making one dump "good stuff" into the CPU cache. Pretty awesome find, right?
But here comes the major difference between Meltdown and Spectre, which significantly complicates Spectre-based exploits implementation. While Meltdown can "scan" CPU cache directly (since the sought-after value was put there from within the scope of process running the Meltdown exploit), in case of Spectre it is the victim process itself that puts this value into the CPU cache. Thus, only the victim process itself is able to perform that timing-based CPU cache "scan". Luckily for hackers, we live in the API-first world, where every decent app has API you can call to make it do the things you need, again measuring how long the execution of each API call took. Although getting the actual value requires deep analysis of the specific application, so this approach is only worth pursuing with the open-source apps. But the "beauty" of Spectre is that apparently, there are many ways to make the victim process leak its data to the CPU cache through speculative execution in the way that allows the attacking process to "pick it up". Google engineers found and documented a few, but unfortunately many more are expected to exist. Who will find them first?
Of course, all of that only sounds easy at a conceptual level - while implementations with the real-world apps are extremely complex, and when I say "extremely" I really mean that. For example, Google engineers created a Spectre exploit POC that, running inside a KVM guest, can read host kernel memory at a rate of over 1500 bytes/second. However, before the attack can be performed, the exploit requires initialization that takes 30 minutes! So clearly, there's a lot of math involved there. But if Google engineers could do that, hackers will be able too – because looking at how advanced some of the ransomware we saw last year was, one might wonder if it was written by folks who Google could not offer the salary or the position they wanted. It's also worth mentioning here that a JavaScript-based POC also exists already, making the browser a viable attack vector for Spectre.
Now, the most important part – what do we do about those vulnerabilities? Well, it would appear that Intel and Google disclosed the vulnerability to all major vendors in advance, so by now most have already released patches. By the way, we really owe a big "thank you" to all those dev and QC folks who were working hard on patches while we were celebrating – just imagine the amount of work and testing required here, when changes are made to the holy grail of the operating system. Anyway, after reading the above, I hope you agree that vulnerabilities do not get more critical than these two, so be sure to install those patches ASAP. And, aside of most obvious stuff like your operating systems and hypervisors, be sure not to overlook any storage, network and other appliances – as they all run on some OS that too needs to be patched against these vulnerabilities. And don't forget your smartphones! By the way, here's one good community tracker for all security bulletins (Microsoft is not listed there, but they did push the corresponding emergency update to Windows Update back on January 3rd).
Having said that, there are a couple of important things you should keep in mind about those patches. First, they do come with a performance impact. Again, some folks will want you to think that the impact is negligible, but it's only true for applications with low I/O activity. While many enterprise apps will definitely take a big hit – at least, big enough to account for. For example, installing the patch resulted in almost 20% performance drop in the PostgreSQL benchmark. And then, there is this major cloud service that saw CPU usage double after installing the patch on one of its servers. This impact is caused due to the patch adding significant overhead to so-called syscalls, which is what computer programs must use for any interactions with the outside world.
Last but not least, do know that while those patches fully address Meltdown, they only address a few currently known attacks vector that Spectre enables. Most security specialists agree that Spectre vulnerability opens a whole slew of "opportunities" for hackers, and that the solid fix can only be delivered in CPU hardware. Which in turn probably means at least two years until first such processor appears – and then a few more years until you replace the last impacted CPU. But until that happens, it sounds like we should all be looking forward to many fun years of jumping on yet another critical patch against some newly discovered Spectre-based attack. Happy New Year! Chinese horoscope says 2018 will be the year of the Earth Dog - but my horoscope tells me it will be the year of the Air Gapped Backup.”*
1) Primo tentativo di aggiornare il kernel di una VM (presumibilmente con la patch anti-Meltdown). Risultato: VM non-bootabile. Groan.
submitted by MonsieurCellophane to ItalyInformatica [link] [comments]

Mega FAQ (Or: Please come here for your questions first)

Qbundle Guide (Step by step setup & Bootstrap) https://burstwiki.org/wiki/QBundle
1( I want to mine or activate My account. Where do find the multiple coins?
You only need 1, an outgoing transaction or reward reassignment will set the public key. Get them from:
https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/comments/7q8zve/initial_burstcoin_requests/
Or (Faucet list)
https://faucet.burstpay.net/ (if this is empty, come back later)
http://faucet.burst-coin.es
Or
https://forums.getburst.net/c/new-members-introductions/getting-started-initial-burstcoin-requests
2( I bought coins on Bittrex and want to move to my new wallet, but can't. Why?
Bittrex will only send to accounts with a public key (not a Burst requirement) so see number 1 and either set the name on the account (IF you will not mine) or set the reward recipient to the pool. Either action will enable the account and allow for transfers from Bittrex.
3( I sent coins from Poloniex/anywhere to Bittrex and they don’t show up after a considerable time. Why?
You need to set an unencrypted message on the transaction, informing Bittrex which account to send the funds to (this is in the directions on Bittrex). Did you do this? Contact Bittrex support with all the details and eventually you will get your funds.
4( How much can I make on Burst?
https://explore.burst.cryptoguru.org/tool/calculate
Gives you an average over time assuming a few things like: Average luck/100% uptime/no overlapping/fees on pool/good plot scan time (<20 seconds) if you do not have all of these, you may not see that number.
5( If I use SSD’s would I make more money?
No, it’s 95% capacity and 5% scan time that determine success. More plot area = better deadlines = better chance of forging a block, or better rates from a pool.
6( What is ‘solo’ and ‘pool’ (wasn’t his name Chewbacca?)
Solo is where you attempt to ‘forge’ (mine) a block by yourself; you get 100% of the block reward and fees. But you only receive funds if you forge, no burst for coming in second place.
Pools allow a group of miners to ‘pool’ together their resources and when a miner wins, they give the pool the winnings (this is done by the reward assignment you completed earlier), it is then divided according to different percentages and methods and burst is sent out according to pool rules (minimum pay-out, time, etc.)
7( I have been mining for 2 days and my wallet doesn’t show any Burst WHY?
Mining solo: it is win-or-lose, nothing in between, and wining is luck and plot size. Pool mining: because it costs 1 burst to send burst, the pools have either a time requirement (every X days) or a minimum amount (100 burst +) so you need to research your pool. Some pools allow for you to set the limit (cryptoGuru and similar) to be met before sending
8( How do I see what I have pending?
On CryptoGuru, based pools, it’s the ‘Pending (burst)’ column, other pools, look for the numbers next to your burst ID. One is Paid and the other pending.
9( I’m part of a pool and I forged a block, but I didn’t recieve the total value of the block, why?
A pool has 2 basic numbers that denote the pay-out method, in the format ‘XX-XX’ (i.e. 50-50) The first number is the % paid to the block forger (miner) and the second is the retained value, which is paid to historic ‘shares’ (or, past blocks that the pool didn’t win, but had a miner that was ‘close’ to winning with a good submitted deadline)
Examples of pools:
0-100 (good for <40TB)
20-80 (30-80TB)
50-50 (60-200TB)
80-20 (150-250)
100-0 (solo mine, 150+ TB)
Please note that there is an overlap as this is personal preference and just guidance; a higher historical share value means a smoother pay-out regime, which some people prefer. If fees are not factored in, or are the same on different pools, the pay-out value will be the same over a long enough period.
10( Is XXX model of hard drive good? Which one do you recommend?
CHEAP is best. If you have 2 new hard drives, both covered by warranty, get the one with the lowest cost per TB (expressed as $/TB , calculated by dividing the cost by the number of terabytes) because plot size is KING,
11( How many drives can I have on my machine?
For best performance, you can have up to 2 drives per thread (3 on a new fast AVX2 CPU). So that quad-core core-2-quad can have up to 8 drives, but a more modern i7 with 4 cores + hyper threading can squeeze 8 * 3 or 24 drives. (Performance while scanning will suffer)
12( Can I game while I mine?
Some people have done so, but you cannot have the ‘maximum’ number of drives and play games generally.
13( Can I mine Burst and GPU mine other coins?
Yes, if you CPU Mine Burst.
14( I’m GPU plotting Burst and GPU mining another coin, my plots are being corrupted, why?
My advice is dedicating a GPU to either mining or plotting, don’t try to do both.
15( What is a ‘plot’?
A plot is a file that contains Hashes, these hashes are used to mine burst. A plot is tied to an account, but they can be created (with the same account ID) on other machines and connected back to your miner(s).
16( Where can I trade/buy/sell Burst?
A list of exchanges is maintained on https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/ (on the right, ‘Exchanges’ tab) the biggest at the moment are Bittrex and Poloniex, some offer direct Fiat-to-Burst purchase (https://indacoin.com for example)
17( Do I have to store my Burst off the exchange?
No, but it’s safer from hackers who target exchanges, if you cannot guarantee the safety or security of your home computer from Trojans etc, then it might be best to leave on an exchange (but enable 2FA security on your account PLEASE!)
18( What security measures can I take to keep my coin safe?
When you create an account, sign out and back in to your wallet (to make sure you have copied the pass phrase correctly) and keep multiple copies of the key (at least one physically printed or written down and in a safe place, better in 2 places) do not disclose the passphrase to anyone. Finally use either a local wallet or a trusted web wallet (please research before using any web wallet)
19( How can I help Burst?
Run a wallet, which will act as a node (or if you’re a programmer, contact the Dev team Bring attention to burst (without ‘shilling’ or trying to get people to buy) And help translate into your local language
Be a productive member of the community and contribute experience and knowledge if you can, or help others get into Burst.
20( Will I get coins on the fork(s) and where will they be?
There will be no new coin, and no new coins to be given/air dropped etc, the forks are upgrades to burst and there will not be a ‘classic’ or ‘new’ burst.
21( Will I need to move my Burst off of the exchange for the fork?
No, your transactions are on the block chain, which will be used on the fork, they will be visible after the move; nothing will need to be done on your side.
22( Where can I read about the progress of Burst and news in general on the community?
There is no finer place than https://www.burstcoin.ist/
23( What are the communities for Burst and the central website?
Main website: https://www.burst-coin.org/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin and https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
Burstforum.net: https://www.burstforum.net/
Getburst forum: https://forums.getburst.net/
Official Facebook channel: https://m.facebook.com/groups/398967360565392
(these are the forums that are known to be supporting the current Dev Team)
Other ways to talk to the community:
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv
Telegram (General): https://t.me/burstcoin
Telegram (Mining): https://t.me/BurstCoinMining
24( When will Burst partner up with a company?
Burst is a currency, the USD does not ‘partner up’ with a company, the DEV team will not partner up and give over to special interests.
25( Why is the DEV team anonymous?
They prefer anonymity, as it allows them to work without constant scrutiny and questions unless they wish to engage, plus the aim is for Burst to become a major contender, and this brings issues with security. They will work and produce results, they owe you nothing and if you cannot see the vision they provide then please do not ‘invest’ for short term gain.
26( When moon/Lambo/$100/make me rich?
My crystal ball is still broken, come back to the FAQ later for answer (seriously, this is a coin to hold, if you want to day-trade, good luck to you)
27( How can I better educate myself and learn about Dymaxion?
Read about the Dymaxion here: https://www.reddit.com/burstcoin/wiki/dymaxion
28( My reads are slow, why?
There are many reasons for this, if your computer has a decent spec it’s likely due to USB3 hub issues, or plugging into a USB2 hub, but other reasons can be multiple plots in the same folder, but it’s best to visit the mining subreddit. They can help more than an simple FAQ https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
29( I have a great idea for Burst (not proof of stake related)?
Awesome! Please discuss with the DEV team on discord https://discordapp.com/invite/RPhpjVv
(Please be aware that this is a public forum, you need to find who to ask/tell)
30( I have a great idea for Burst (Proof of stake related)?
No. if you want a POS, find a POS coin. On the tangle which is being implemented a POS/POW/POC coin can be created, but BURST will always be POC mined. You are welcome to implement a proof of stake coin on this!
31( Will the Dev team burn any coins?
Burst is not an ICO, so any coins will need to be bought to be burnt. You are welcome to donate, but the DEV team have no intention of burning any coins, or increasing the coin cap.
32( When will there be an IOS wallet?
IOS wallet is completed; we are waiting for it to go on the app store. Apple is the delaying factor.
33( Why do overlapping plots matter?
Plots are like collections of lottery tickets (and if only one ticket could win). Having 2 copies is not useful, and it means that you have less coverage of ‘all’ the possible numbers. It’s not good, avoid.
34( My local wallet used to run, I synchronised it before and now it says ‘stopped’. when I start it, it stops after a few seconds, what should I do?
I suggest that you change the database type to portable MariaDB (on Qbundle, at the top, ‘Database’ select, ‘change database’) and then re-import the database from scratch (see 35)
35( Synchronising the block chain is slow and I have the patience of a goldfish. What can I do?
On Qbundle , ‘Database’ select ‘Bootstrap chain’ and make sure the CryptoGuru repository is selected, then ‘start Import’ this will download and quickly stuff the local database (I suggest Portable MariaDB, see 34) (lol, loop)
36( What will the block reward be next month/will the block rewards run out in 6 months?
https://www.ecomine.earth/burstblockreward/ Rewards will carry on into 2026, but transaction fees will be a bigger % by then, and so profitable mining will continue.
37( How can I get started with Burst (wallet/mining/everything) and I need it in a video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJLhw37Lh_8 Watch and be enlightened.
38( Can I mine on multiple machines with the same account?
Yes, if you want to pool mine this can be done (but be prepared for small issues like reported size being incorrect. Just be sure to keep question 33 in mind.)
39( Why do some of my drives take forever to plot?
Most likely they are SMR drives, it’s best to plot onto another SSD and then move the finished plot/part of a plot across to the SMR drive as this is much quicker. SMR drives are fine on the read, just random writes that are terrible.
So plot an SMR drive quickly, plot to a non SMR or better still SSD drive, in as big a chunk as possible (fewer files better) and move. a version of Xplotter, called Splotter, can do this easily.
https://github.com/NoParamedic/SPlotter
40( I have a great idea; why not get listed on more exchanges!!
Exchanges list coins because of 2 reasons:
  1. Clients email and REQUESTING Burst and provide details like:
    i. https://www.burst-coin.org/information-for-exchanges
  2. The coin pays (often A LOT, seriously we’ve been asked for 50 BTC)
I suggest you speak with your exchange and ask ‘when will they offer Burst?’
41( Do you have a roadmap?
https://www.burst-coin.org/roadmap
42( Why is the price of Burst going up/down/sideways/looping through time?
The price of burst is still quite dependent upon Bitcoin, meaning that if Bitcoin gains, the value of Burst gains, if Bitcoin drops then Burst also drops. If there is news for Burst then we will see something independent of Bitcoin moving. Variations can be because of people buying in bulk or selling in bulk. There are also ‘pump and dump’ schemes that we detest, that can cause spikes in price that have nothing to do with news or Bitcoin, just sad people taking advantage of others.
43( Where is the best place to go with my mining questions?
https://www.reddit.com/burstcoinmining/
or https://t.me/BurstCoinMining
44( What hardware do you advise me to buy, is this computer good?
See question 43 for specific questions on hardware, it depends on so many variables. The ‘best’ in my opinion is a 36 bay Supermicro storage server, usually they have dual 6-core CPU’s and space for 36 drives. No USB cables, plotting and mining monster, anything else, DYOR.
45( Where do you buy your hard drives?
I have bought most from EBay in job lots, and some refurbished drives with short warranties. Everything else I have bought, from Amazon.
46( Can I mine on my Google drive/cloud based storage?
In short: no. If you want to try, and get to maybe 1 TB and then find that your local connection isn’t fast enough, or that shortly after, your account is blocked for various reasons. Please be my guest.
47( Can I mine on my NAS?
Some you can mine with the NAS (if it can run the miner, it can scan locally) but generally they’re not very fast. good for maybe 16 TB? Having a plot on a NAS and mining from another computer depends on the network speed between the NAS and scanning computer. I believe you can scan about 8 TB (maybe a bit more) and keep the scan times to within acceptable, but YMMV.
48( How can I set up a node?
No need to set up a node, just set up a wallet (version 2.0.4) or Qbundle (2.2) and it will do the rest
49( Are the passphrases secured?
I’ll leave the effort to a few people to show how secure a 12-word passphrase is: https://burstforum.net/topic/4766/the-canary-burst-early-warning-system Key point: brute forcing it will be around 13,537,856,339,904,134,474,012,675,034 years.
50( I logged into my account (maybe with a different burst ID) and see no balance!!
I have dealt with this very issue multiple times, and there are only 3 options:
  1. You have typed in the password incorrectly
  2. You have copy-pasted the password incorrectly
  3. You are trying to log into a ‘local wallet’ which the block chain has not finished updating
The last one generally leaves the burst ID the same, but old balances will show. No, this is not a security problem, and yes, windows loves to add spaces after the phrase you enter when copied, and that space is important in getting to your account.
51( Are there channels for my language?
Telegram:
Spanish: https://t.me/burstcoin_es
German: https://t.me/Burstcoinde
Italian: https://t.me/BurstCoinItalia
Forum:
Spanish: https://burst-coin.es/index.php/forum/index
Discord:
Spanish: https://discordapp.com/invite/RaaGna9
Bulgarian: https://discord.gg/r4uzTd
(there are others, please contact me to put up)
52( I am mining in a pool, and it says that my effective capacity is lower than I actually have, why?
  1. If you've not been mining for >48 hours, or just added additional capacity, it will take time.
  2. The value fluctuates (normally, +-5% but can be up to 10% at times)
  3. Read on the ‘Quick info’ tab about adjusting your deadline to compensate for changes i. revisit once a month for best results
  4. If you have overlapping plots it will also be lower so be aware of this (see question 33)
53( What pool should I join?
First of all, read question 9, after you have understood that it depends on the size (and how patient you are) select from the following list: https://www.ecomine.earth/burstpools/
54( What miner to use?
I use Blago’s miner, there are many out there but Blago’s works for me on CPU mining, it can be found in Qbundle.
55( What Wallet to use (I use windows)?
Qbundle: https://github.com/PoC-Consortium/Qbundle/releases/ guide: https://burstwiki.org/wiki/QBundle
56( What Wallet to use (Linux)?
https://package.cryptoguru.org/ for Debian and Ubuntu, for Mac. read:
https://www.ecomine.earth/macoswalletinstallguide/
57( Will i need to 'replot' after POC2 (second fork) happens?
No, there will be a tool which will optimise, but it is not CPU intensive (it basically re-shuffles your plot) and is just IO intensive. You do not need to replot.
TurboPlotter and https://github.com/PoC-Consortium/Utilities/tree/mastepoc1to2.pl are tools that will/can be used to actuate optimization, but PLEASE wait with optimization until after the hard fork.
58( Will the transaction fee always be 1 burst?
No, dynamic fees are coming in the next fork.
submitted by dan_dares to burstcoin [link] [comments]

[Monday, 27. May]

World News

Hong Kong protestors demand China be held to account for 1989 Tiananmen crackdown
Comments | Link
EU election turnout rises for the first time, hits 50%
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South Africa signs Carbon Tax Act into law. The carbon tax on polluters will come into effect on 1 June 2019.
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All news, US and international.

San Francisco police union calls on chief to resign after raid on reporter's home
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Miss. lawmaker accused of punching wife issues joint statement with her, does not apologize
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North Korea calls Bolton 'war monger' over missile comment
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Science

High-intensity resistance training can improve sleep quality and reduce anxiety in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder, finds a new randomized controlled feasibility trial.
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People who experience anxiety symptoms might be helped by regulating the microorganisms in their gut using probiotic and non-probiotic food and supplements, suggests a new study (total n=1,503), that found that gut microbiota may help regulate brain function through the “gut-brain axis.”
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Scientists have traced the history of the apple from its wild origins, noting that it was originally spread by ancient megafauna and later as a process of trade along the Silk Road. These processes allowed for the development of the varieties that we know today.
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Technology

Qualcomm Ruled a Monopoly, Found in Violation of US Antitrust Law
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We should opt into data tracking, not out of it, says DuckDuckGo CEO Gabe Weinberg
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#DeleteFacebook: Twitter Users Urge People To Deactivate Accounts After Fake Nancy Pelosi Video Goes Viral
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Sadly, this is not the Onion.

Ask Reddit...

What are some red flags of a bad friendship?
Comments
Millennials, What is one thing that the rest of us just don't understand?
Comments
What's the dumbest thing you've ever done because your brain was on autopilot?
Comments

Sysadmin

Does anyone use Microsoft Teams?
Comments
Looking for IT themed cocktail names
Comments
How do you learn a new IT skill?
Comments

Microsoft SQL Server

Schema wont show up on mysql workbench?
Comments

PowerShell

Automation of Certificates
Comments
Reading Data from another Console Session
Comments
Robocopy and passing variable woes.
Comments

Functional 3D Printing

After 2 hours of CAD and 3 failed prints it came out perfect. My wife: “Cool, you fixed a broom...” 🤷‍♂️
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Cat was being a little bitch...
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Upgraded my paintball gun with printed pump kit
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Data Is Beautiful

UK Electricity from Coal [OC]
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The Most Valuable Teams [OC]
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Bitcoin Energy Requirements Climbing Even as Revenues Fall
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Today I Learned (TIL)

TIL about the Florida fairy shrimp, which was discovered in 1952 to be a unique species of fairy shrimp specific to a single pond in Gainesville, Florida. When researchers returned to that pond in 2011, they realized it had been filled in for development, thereby causing the species to go extinct.
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TIL that Matt Leblanc, before he was cast in Friends, was told by a photographer to go to a dentist and file a tooth as it was longer. Matt couldn't afford $80 for the dentist as he only had $11 left to his name, so he bought 3 packs of emery boards (Nail files) and filed the tooth himself.
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TIL about Nuclear Semiotics - the study of how to warn people 10,000+ years from now about nuclear waste, when all known languages may have disappeared
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So many books, so little time

Leviathan Wakes completely blew me away
Comments
I just finished The Art of War, by Sun Tzu. Although short, it gave me very important lessons.
Comments
How do you write negative reviews without being an A-hole?
Comments

OldSchoolCool: History's cool kids, looking fantastic

My Grandma Modeled in the 60s
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1964 - My new Schwinn Sting Ray on my birthday
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~1953. My Grandmother and Grandfather, on their wedding day. My grandfathers life is ending soon and she's still by his side. Found this while moving their things from their old apartment.
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aviation

Tried to design a plane
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EF-2000
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what a beaut
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Reddit Pics

My neighbor and her date decided to dress in the 1950s look for the prom.....AWESOME
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My wife's Grandma died in her room yesterday with all of us around. My dog always protected her while she was lonely or scared. He's been keeping vigil all day, looking for his friend.
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My little project for the long weekend. A journey through the 20th century
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.gifs - funny, animated gifs for your viewing pleasure

"Gimme a hug, human"..."We are working"..."Scritches then"...
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The German Wheel is an impressive discipline
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Guy gets a swimming buddy
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A subreddit for cute and cuddly pictures

Waking up a deaf pup
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Cutie in Peru
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Nosey cow undoubtedly stole the show at the county fairgrounds. Not everyone’s into cows, but she was a beauty with THE softest ears.
Comments | Link
submitted by DangerDylan to DangerDylanTLDR [link] [comments]

__Anyone have Tor working consistently on Electrum? (have been trying with solutions for over 17 hours!)

Hello hello, I know this has come up many times before but as I am now in my 17th hour of troubleshooting and my circumstances may be different, I am asking the lovely people here out of sheer determination.
 
__SITUATION
With Tor browser running and happy, one manual setting I had a bit of luck with was:
4yi77lkjgy4bwtj3.onion - 50001 - SSL off
Socks5 localhost 9050
No 'Proxy user' or 'Password'
Unchecked 'Use Tor proxy at port 9150'
 
The above downloaded something in history but with no details other than 'unknown' in the date column. I believe this may be the initial test amount I sent from coinbase as it was so negligible, Electrum shows the balance as 0 and the address is showing as 'Used' under the addresses tab.
 
I am trying to receive a new amount that was also sent but having not been able to consistently connect to any servers, I eventually deleted the blockchain_headers file in the hope it would re-download but it now stays on 0kb even on the one occasion it showed synchronising which was left for 11 hours. Both addresses are showing as confirmed on blockexplorer.com
 
I have tried every .onion server from here: 1209k.com/bitcoin-eye/ele.php with SSL on for 50002 & off for 50001. Alongside every combination of every setting.
 
I have done all the standard troubleshooting of restarting, disabling firewalls/antivirus on the host machine, cleaning dnscache/cookies/etc.
 
Please forgive my lack of knowledge on these things as I can only assume that as the initial server above now not appears to be working, I assume it may be dead/offline. I just wish there was a way for Electrum to automatically check a list of Tor servers until it finds a connection.
 
I should mention that, unfortunately, I am currently limited to version 2.8.2 as am running it on a XP Virtualbox. I am aware that this is not ideal but I kind of gave up after 6 solid days trying to get a working Linux distro less than 200mb as my Linux knowledge was too limited in ensuring guess additions, etc.
 
As I believe it 'was' working and no variables have changed, I am tearing my hair out trying to get it connected.
 
__QUESTIONS
Do I just keep trying different .onion servers till one connects? If so, does anyone have any working ones?
 
When I've successfully had the red icon change to Synchronising or blue, it usually happens instantly after entering the server details - how long would you suggest waiting between each try?
 
I have given it this much effort as research suggests Electrum is the easiest and no other wallets allow for features such as dynamic or replaceable fees; unless anyone knows of any?
 
Judging by how frequently 1209k.com/bitcoin-eye/ele.php refreshes with new .onion servers; am I right in assuming these servers come and go constantly. If so, what do other Tor Electrum users do when they want to use Electrum - do they just try dozens of servers till one works?
 
Do I need to be forwarding ports if Tor browser is always running?
 
Do I eventually need to be adding firewall exceptions once I have them turned on?
 
Although I am very new to all of this, I was hoping that for something that is fast approaching its decennial anniversary; there would be a few more robust solutions. Perhaps most of my issues boil down to my version limitation - who knows.
 
As you can tell, this issue has taken a usually highly chilled chap to a state of deep frustration so I cannot thank you enough if you have a couple of moments to help a fellow human out. It really would mean the world to me.
 
Eternally grateful,
 
-mawvius
 
 
EDIT: typos
 
 
submitted by mawvius to Electrum [link] [comments]

$1500-$2000 USD scientific workstation

Build Help/Ready:

Have you read the sidebar and rules? (Please do)
Yes.
What is your intended use for this build? The more details the better.
Primary: Scientific Workstation
Software includes -
-> computationally expensive MATLAB
- CUDA-enabled GPU computing for MATLAB
-> computationally expensive quantum chemistry/DFT software
- Examples of software - I want to be able to do GPU-assisted simulations as well
- VASP - has GPU support
-> computationally expensive FDTD software
- Lumerical FDTD Solver - commercial software (I have a license) that apparently does not support GPU support; seems the main bottleneck is memory bandwidth and not processing power
gsvit - open source FDTD with GPU support
Secondary: Gaming, Cryptocurrency (Etherium, Bitcoin mining)
I figure the workstation specifications will more than cover the computer's ability to do these, but I wanted to mention these all for completeness sake.
If gaming, what kind of performance are you looking for? (Screen resolution, framerate, game settings)
1080p 60fps on high/ultra is good, but if the performance is possible wouldn't mind getting into 4k down the road. I mainly play Blizzard games and Minecraft right now, but may get into Destiny 2.
What is your budget (ballpark is okay)?
$1500-$2000, but variable.
In what country are you purchasing your parts?
United States
Post a draft of your potential build here (specific parts please). Consider formatting your parts list. Don't ask to be spoonfed a build (read the rules!). PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant
Type Item Price
CPU Intel - Core i7-7700K 4.2GHz Quad-Core Processor $323.11 @ OutletPC
CPU Cooler Corsair - H60 54.0 CFM Liquid CPU Cooler $64.99 @ Amazon
Motherboard Asus - PRIME Z270-A ATX LGA1151 Motherboard $149.89 @ OutletPC
Memory G.Skill - Ripjaws V Series 16GB (2 x 8GB) DDR4-2400 Memory $124.99 @ NCIX US
Storage Samsung - 850 EVO-Series 250GB 2.5" Solid State Drive $89.99 @ B&H
Storage Western Digital - Caviar Blue 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $46.88 @ OutletPC
Video Card Gigabyte - GeForce GTX 1080 8GB AORUS xtreme edition Video Card $569.99 @ Amazon
Case NZXT - S340 (Black) ATX Mid Tower Case $69.99 @ B&H
Power Supply EVGA - SuperNOVA G3 550W 80+ Gold Certified Fully-Modular ATX Power Supply $70.98 @ Newegg
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total (before mail-in rebates) $1530.81
Mail-in rebates -$20.00
Total $1510.81
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-28 13:43 EDT-0400
Provide any additional details you wish below.
As I mentioned, the primary purpose of this computer will be as a scientific workstation. I don't intend for it to be servecluster quality, but rather a strong desktop computer (duel Windows/Linux boot) that can run some relatively small, computationally expensive simulations and software in a reasonable amount of time, before larger projects/assignments are created for running on a computing cluster.
My main concerns are reducing bottleneck - I want to be able to run both CPU and GPU-intensive software in a balanced way, meaning I'm not skimping on the GPU for a better CPU and vice versa. I realize it could be difficult to compare
Some specific questions I have:
1) According to Intel's site, the max RAM speed supported by the i7-7700k is DDR4-2400. How does one use RAM with a higher speed? Do you need a Xeon processor? Also, I'm looking at 32 GB RAM.
2) For my purpose, should I definitely get a Z270? I read somewhere that it has a better memory controller than the Z170, but not sure about this.
3) How does the 1080 compare to 2x 1070? Or a 1080 Ti? For CUDA and for cryptocurrencies? I don't know too much about these from a computer hardware perspective, but am interested in learning more.
Thank you!
submitted by Concordiaa to buildapc [link] [comments]

My PHP Bitcoin Node Status Page

After setting up my VPS as a full node, I thought it would be nice if I had some way of displaying it to the world.
Live Demo: https://loki.vikingserv.net
GitHub Code: https://github.com/craigwatson/bitcoind-status
Travis CI: https://travis-ci.org/craigwatson/bitcoind-status
Features:
Compatability
Tested with PHP 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 as well as HHVM and Nightly builds.
Contributions
Please feel free to comment, suggest (or better still, contribute!) new features or improvements. Tips (via changetip) are also graciously accepted!
submitted by CraigWatson1987 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

If you were to write a BTC/LTC trading bot, what features, strategies, and architecture would you use?

TLDR: I want to write or find a good low-risk trading bot, and if I make it myself, I need some advice.
Background: I've been a hacker and programmer for 17 years, coming from a DIY and experimental background rather than an academic one. I'm more of a jack-of-all-trades than an expert at any one thing.
I have picked up C, Obj-C, C#, some PHP, a little JavaScript, a little Perl, and a little C++ over the course of my career, and I feel like I must know enough to write a bot from a technical standpoint, but I certainly am not a Trader and have next to no idea what I am doing in the market.
Part of my reason for wanting to run a bot is that over the past few weeks I have learned that no matter how much good trading advice I read, I am a total noob. I am subject to panic sells and buys even if I know it goes against my proper strategy or the position I've entered. I am also at the level where my TA is just barely better than reading tea leaves. Luckily, I have only been trading with a few of my bitcoins and have been holding the rest, so I haven't done much damage to myself yet.
I am curious about the process of writing and using trading bots, but so far the help I have been able to find googling is very vague or hard for me to grasp as a noob. But, as a software engineer, I am interested in the general concept and would like to try it myself. Can anyone with previous bot experience help with a little guidance on these topics? Thanks.
I know it's a bad idea to put your API key and secret in a file. Is it safe to have them submitted in a form as long as it's over HTTPS, say if I had a bot script hosted on my web server? Or, would it be better to have them only as environment variables? How would I go about doing that if I'm not a sysadmin? Does this mean I should be running the bot only on my local system?
At its focus, I would like this bot to be able to make small amounts of money off of LTC/BTC price differences and the smaller, more predictable fluctuations of the bid/ask spread within a single currency.
What features am I going to need to effectively manage this type of strategy, and what sort of features would be overkill or lead me down paths of very little productivity or profit?
I am not good with math. I barely understand trig, can't do calculus to save my life. What indicators would you use that I could be able to understand the math behind enough to program checks and rules into a bot?
I have been watching StochRSI at various time periods, and it seems to be a fairly accurate predictor of some trends, but there's an awful lot of noise as well. 10/21 EMA crossings seem to be even noisier. They happen all the time on the shorter period charts, and often will cross multiple times in a day, even on the 1h chart.
What indicators would you use if you were writing a bot for low-risk trading?
What simple rules would you put in place to make the basic trades, and what rules would you write in order to act as checks and balances against other stupid bot rules?
How would you avoid being manipulated by other bots?
Is this a fool's errand? Should I just download someone else's bot code, or use an Ichimoku bot on cryptotrader.org? I don't want to be a fish and just use a bot that someone else is going to manipulate, and I don't want to get a trojan or have all my bitcoins stolen, or pick a buggy or malicious bot that trades me into $0 immediately.
So, I still think I may want to try writing one myself, but my attempts so far have been poor. I can't even seem to get the authentication working to read from the BTC-E API when I copy and paste the code from their own site.
If this really is a bad idea for a self-driven noob software project, let me know, and then I'll just Buy & Hold and do other stuff with my free time :)
Otherwise, I would appreciate some advice in choosing my path, or perhaps a collaborator who would want to work on a bot together.
submitted by dilettantrepreneur to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Bi-Weekly Rational Feed

===Highly Recommended Articles:
Superintelligence Risk Project Update II by Jeff Kaufman - Jeff's thoughts and the sources he found most useful. Project is wrapping up in a few day. Topics: Technical Distance to AI. Most plausible scenarios of Superintelligence risk. OpenPhil's notes on how progress was potentially stalled in Cryonics and Nanotech.
Superintelligence Risk Project Update by Jeff Kaufman - Links to the three most informative readings on AI risk. Details on the large number of people Jeff has talked to. Three fundamental points of view on AI-Safety. Three Fundamental points of disagreement. An update on the original questions Jeff was trying to answer.
Podcast The World Needs Ai Researchers Heres How To Become One by 80,000 Hours - "OpenAI’s latest plans and research progress. Concrete Papers in AI Safety, which outlines five specific ways machine learning algorithms can act in dangerous ways their designers don’t intend - something OpenAI has to work to avoid. How listeners can best go about pursuing a career in machine learning and AI development themselves."
Radical Book Club The Decentralized Left by davidzhines (Status 451) - The nature of leftwing organizing and what righties can learn from it. An exposition of multiple books on radical left organization building. Major themes are "doing the work" and "decentralized leadership".
Study Of The Week To Remediate Or Not To Remediate by Freddie deBoer - Should low math proficiency students take remedial algebra or credit bearing statistics. The City University of New York ran an actual randomized study to test this. The study had pretty good controls. For example students were randomly assigned to three groups, participating professors taught one section of each group.
Kenneth Arrow On The Welfare Economics Of Medical Care A Critical Assessment by Artir (Nintil) - "Kenneth Arrow wrote a paper in 1963, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. This paper tends to appear in debates regarding whether healthcare can be left to the market (like bread), or if it should feature heavy state involvement. Here I explain what the paper says, and to what extent it is true."
Becoming Stronger Together by b4yes (lesswrong) - "About a year ago, a secret rationalist group was founded. This is a report of what the group did during that year."
The Destruction Of American Cuisine by Small Truths - America used to have a tremendous number of regional cuisines, most are dead. They were killed by supermarkets and frozen food. This has been costly both in terms of culture and health (antibiotic resistance, crop monoculture risk)
===Scott:
Targeting Meritocracy by Scott Alexander - Education and merit are different. Programming is one of the last meritocracies, this lets disadvantaged people get into the field. If a job is high impact we want to hire on merit. The original, literal meaning of meritocracy is important.
Classified Thread 2 Best In Classified by Scott Alexander - Scott is promoting a project to accelerate the trend of rationalists living near each other. There are four houses available for rent near Ward Street in Berkeley. Ward street is currently the rationalist hub in the Bay. Commenters can advertise other projects and services.
Url Of Sandwich by Scott Alexander - Standard links post, somewhat longer than usual.
Opec Thread by Scott Alexander - Bi-weekly open thread. Update on Scott and Katja's travels. Salt Lake City Meetup highlight. Topher Brennan is running for Senate.
Can We Link Perception And Cognition by Scott Alexander - SSC survey optical illusions. "So there seems to be a picture where high rates of perceptual ambiguity are linked to being weirder and (sometimes, in a very weak statistical way) lower-functioning." Speculation about fundamental connections between perception and cognitive style. Ideas for further research.
Change Minds Or Drive Turnout by Scott Alexander - Extreme candidates lower turnout among their own party. Is base turnout really the only thing that matters? Lots of quotes from studies.
===Rationalist:
Learning From Past Experiences by mindlevelup - "This is about finding ways to quickly learn from past experiences to inform future actions. We briefly touch upon different learning models." Model-based and Model-Free reinforcement learning. Practical advice and examples.
How Long Has Civilization Been Going by Elo (BearLamp) - Human agricultural society is only 342-1000 generations old. "Or when you are 24 years old you have lived one day for every year humans have had written records." Human civilization is only a few hundred lifetimes old.
Choices Are Bad by Zvi Moshowitz - Choices reduce perceived value. Choices require time and energy. Making someone choose is imposing a real cost.
Erisology Of Self And Will: The Gulf by Everything Studies - "Part 4 will discuss some scientific disciplines with bearing on the self, and how their results are interpreted differently by the traditional paradigm vs. the scientific."
Philosophy Vs Duck Tests by Robin Hanson - Focusing on deep structure vs adding up weak cues. If it looks like an x... More discussion of whether most people will consider ems people and/or conscious.
Knowing How To Define by AellaGirl - "These are three ways in which a word can be ‘defined’ – the role it plays in the world around it (the up-definition), synonyms (lateral-definition), and the parts which construct the thing (down-definition)." Applications to morality and free-will.
Change Is Bad by Zvi Moshowitz - "Change space, like mind space, is deep and wide. Friendly change space isn’t quite to change space what friendly mind space is to mind space, but before you apply any filters of common sense, it’s remarkably close." A long list of conditions that mean change has lower expected value. Why we still need to make changes. Keep your eyes open.
Meditation Insights Suffering And Pleasure Are Intrinsically Bound Together by Kaj Sotala - The concrete goal of meditation is to train your peripheral awareness. Much suffering comes from false promises of pleasure. Procrastinating to play a videogame won't actually make you feel better. Temptation losses its power once you truly see the temptations for what they truly are.
Be My Neighbor by Katja Grace - Katja lives in a rationalist house on ward street in Berkeley and its great. The next step up is a rationalist neighborhood. Katja is promoting the same four houses as Scott. Be her neighbor?
What Value Subagents by G Gordan (Map and Territory) - Splitting the mind into subagents is a common rationalist model (links to Alicorn, Briene Yudkowsky, etc). However the author preferred model is a single process with inconsistent preferences. Freud. System 1 and System 2. The rider and the Elephant become one. Subagents as masks. Subagents as epicycles.
The Order Of The Soul by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - The philosophy of accepting things vs the impulse to reshape them. Many philosophical and psychological models split the soul into three. Internalized authority vs seeing the deep structure of moral reality. In some sense math is the easiest thing in the world to learn. School poisons the enjoyment of rational thought. Lockhart's lament. Feynman. Eichmann and thinking structurally.
Aliens Merely Sleeping by Tyler Cowen - The universe is currently too hot for artificial life to be productive. Advanced civilizations might be freezing themselves until the universe cools. "They could achieve up to 1030 times more than if done today" [short]
Book Reviews by Torello (lesswrong) - Rationalist Adjacent. Each book has an interesting 'ideas per page' rating. Homo Deus, Sapiens, Super-intelligence, Surfaces and Essences, What Technology Wants, Inside Jokes, A Skeptic's Guide to the Mind.
Geometers Scribes Structure Intelligence by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - "How does spatial reasoning lead to formal, logical reasoning?" Fluid and crystalized intelligence. Some history of Philosophy. How social dynamics lead to the evolution of reasoning. Talmudic and Western law, and their oddities. Universal Grammar and connecting with the divine. FizzBuzz.
High Dimensional Societies by Robin Hanson - In high dimensional space the distance between points varies less. What implications does this have for 'spatial' social science models (ex analogues of 1D spectrums and 2D graphs).
Feelings In The Map by Elo (BearLamp) - Confusion is not a property of the external world. The same holds for many emotions. Non-violent communication and speaking from your own perspective.
Lesswrong Is Not About Forum Software by enye-word (lesswrong) - The best way to increase activity on lesswrong is to get back the top posters, especially Scott and Eliezer.
Explication by mindlevelup - "This essay is about explication, the notion of making things specific. I give some examples involving Next Actions and systematization. This might also just be obvious to many people. Part of it is also a rehash of Act Into Uncertainty. Ultimately, explication is about changing yourself."
Concrete Instructions by Elo (BearLamp) - "The objective test of whether the description is concrete is whether the description can be followed by an anonymous person to produce the same experience." Some examples including the 'paper folding game'.
Human Seems Low Dimensional by Robin Hanson - 'Humanness' seems to be a one dimensional variable. Hence people are likely to consider ems conscious and worthy of decent treatment since ems are human-like on many important factors. Some discussion of a study where people rated how human-like various entities were.
Erisology Of Self And Will: A Natural Offering by Everything Studies - A description of naturalism and it relation to science. Daniel Dennet. Many philosophers are still dualists about the self. The self as a composite. Freedom as emergent.
The Hungry Brain by Bayesian Investor - A short review that focuses on the basics of Guynet's ideas and meta-discussion of why Guynet included so much neuroscience. "Guyenet provides fairly convincing evidence that it’s simple to achieve a healthy weight while feeling full. (E.g. the 20 potatoes a day diet)."
Boost From The Best by Robin Hanson - [Age of Em] How many standard deviations above the mean will be the best em be? How much better will they be than the second best em? How much of a wage/leisure premium will the best em receive.
Becoming Stronger Together by b4yes (lesswrong) - "About a year ago, a secret rationalist group was founded. This is a report of what the group did during that year."
In Praise Of Fake Frameworks by Valentine (lesswrong) - "I use a lot of fake frameworks — that is, ways of seeing the world that are probably or obviously wrong in some important way. I think this is an important skill. There are obvious pitfalls, but I think the advantages are more than worth it. In fact, I think the "pitfalls" can even sometimes be epistemically useful."
Letter To Future Layperson by Sailor Vulcan (BYS) - A letter from someone in our age to someone post singularity. Description of the hardships and terrors of pre-singularity life. Emotional and poetic. ~5K words.
===AI:
Conversation With An Ai Researcher by Jeff Kaufman - The anonymous researcher thinks AI progress is almost entirely driven by hardware and data. Back propagation has existed for a long time. Go would have taken at least 10 more years if go-aI work had remained constrained by academic budgets.
Openai Baselines PPO by Open Ai - "We’re releasing a new class of reinforcement learning algorithms, Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), which perform comparably or better than state-of-the-art approaches while being much simpler to implement and tune. PPO has become the default reinforcement learning algorithm at OpenAI because of its ease of use and good performance."
Superintelligence Risk Project Update II by Jeff Kaufman - Jeff's thoughts and the sources he found most useful. Project is wrapping up in a few day. Topics: Technical Distance to AI. Most plausible scenarios of Superintelligence risk. OpenPhil's notes on how progress was potentially stalled in Cryonics and Nanotech.
Real Debate Robots Education by Tyler Cowen - Robots are already becoming part of the classroom. K-12 is an artificially creation anyway. Robots can help autistic or disabled children. Children sometimes trust robots too much.
Robust Adversarial Inputs by Open Ai - "We’ve created images that reliably fool neural network classifiers when viewed from varied scales and perspectives. This challenges a claim from last week that self-driving cars would be hard to trick maliciously since they capture images from multiple scales, angles, perspectives, and the like."
What Is Overfitting Exactly by Andrew Gelman - "If your model is correct, “overfitting” is impossible. In its usual form, “overfitting” comes from using too weak of a prior distribution."
Conversation With Bryce Wiedenbeck by Jeff Kaufman - "AGI is possible, it could be a serious problem, but we can't productively work on it now." AGI will look very different from current technologies. Utility functions are a poor model of human behavior.
Examples Of Superintelligence Risk by Jeff Kaufman - A series of extended quotes describing ways AI with innocent seeming goals can destroy the world. Authors: Nick Bostrom, Eliezer (and collaborators), Luke M, 80K hours, Tim Urban. Jeff finds them unpersuasive and asks for better ones. Lots of interesting comments. Eleizer himself comments describing how 'paperclip maximizers' might realistically occur.
Superintelligence Risk Project Update by Jeff Kaufman - Links to the three most informative readings on AI risk. Details on the large number of people Jeff has talked to. Three fundamental points of view on AI-Safety. Three Fundamental points of disagreement. An update on the original questions Jeff was trying to answer.
Conversation With Michael Littman by Jeff Kaufman - CS Professor at Brown's opinions: Deep Learning is surprisingly brittle in his experience. General Intelligence will require large fundamental advances. The AI risk community isn't testing their ideas so they probably aren't making real progress.
===EA:
EAGX Relaunch by Roxanne_Heston (EA forum) - The EA global satellite EAGA-X conferences have been low activity. Changes: More funding and flexibility. Standardized formats. Fewer groups approved. Stipends to primary organizers.
Uncertainty Smoothes Out Differences In Impact by The Foundational Research Institute - Many inside view evaluations conclude that one intervention is orders of magnitude more effective than another. Uncertainty significantly reduces these ratios.
Autonomy: A Search For A Measure Will Pearson (EA forum) - "I shall introduce a relatively formal measure of autonomy, based on the intuition that it is the ability to do things by yourself with what you have. The measure introduced allows you to move from less to more autonomy, without being black and white about it. Then I shall talk about how increasing autonomy fits in with the values of movements such as poverty reduction, ai risk reduction and the reduction of suffering."
Eight media articles on GiveDirectly, Cash Transers and Basic Income.- A world where 8 men own as much wealth as 3.6 billion people by GiveDirectly -
More Giving Vs Doing by Jeff Kaufman - EA is moving far more money than it used to and the ramp up will continue. This means direct work has become relatively more valuable. Nonetheless giving money is still useful, capacity isn't being filled. Jeff plans on earning to give based on his personal constraints.
Why I Think The Foundational Research Institute by Mike Johnson (EA forum) - A description of the FRI. Good things about FRI. FRI's research framework and why the author is worried. Eight long objections. TLDR: "functionalism ("consciousness is the sum-total of the functional properties of our brains") sounds a lot better than it actually turns out to be in practice. In particular, functionalism makes it impossible to define ethics & suffering in a way that can mediate disagreements."
Tranquilism by The Foundational Research Institute - A paper arguing that reducing suffering is more important than promoting happiness. Axiology. Non-consciousness. Common Objections. Conclusion.
An Argument For Why The Future May Be Good by Ben West (EA forum) - Factory farming shows that humans are deeply cruel. Technology enabled this cruelty, perhaps the future will be even darker. Counterargument: Humans are lazy, not evil. Humans as a group will spend at least small amounts altruistically. In the future the cost of reducing suffering will go down low enough that suffering will be rare or non-existent.
Arguments Moral Advocacy by The Foundational Research Institute - "What does moral advocacy look like in practice? Which values should we spread, and how? How effective is moral advocacy compared to other interventions such as directly influencing new technologies? What are the most important arguments for and against focusing on moral advocacy?"
An Argument For Broad And Inclusive by Kaj Sotala (EA forum) - "I argue for a very broad, inclusive EA, based on the premise that the culture of a region is more important than any specific group within that region... As a concrete strategy, I propose a division into low-level and high-level EA"
Not Everybody wants a Goat by GiveDirectly - Eight links on GiveDirectly, Cash Transfers, Effective Altruism and Basic Income.
Mid Year Update by The GiveWell Blog - Encouraging more charities to apply. More research of potential interventions. Short operations recap. GiveWell is focusing more on outreach.
===Politics and Economics:
College Tuition by Tom Bartleby - Sticker prices for college have gone up 15K in twenty years, but the average actual cost has only gone up 2.5K. High prices are almost compensated by high aid. Advantage: more equitable access to education. Disadvantages: Not everyone knows about the aid, financial aid is large enough it can seriously distort family financial decisions.
War Of Wages Part 1 Apples And Walmarts by Jacob Falkovich (Put A Number On It!) - The Author thinks minimum wage hurts the poor. Walmart can't afford higher wages. Copenhagan Interpretation of Ethics: Walmart helps the poor and gets blamed, Apple does nothing for the poor but avoids blame.
Links 10 by Artir (Nintil) - Tons of links. Economics, Psychology, AI, Philosophy, Misc.
Pretend Ask Answer by Ben Hoffman (Compass Rose) - A short dialogue about Patriarchy and the meaning of oppression. Defensive actions are often a response to bad faith from the other side. Its not ok to explicitly say you think your partner is arguing in bad faith.
Cultural Studies Ironically Is Something Of A Colonizer by Freddie deBoer - An origin story for Writing Studies. The fields initial methodological diversity. Cultural studies took over the field, empirical work has been pushed out. Evidence that some cultural studies professors really do believe its fundamentally bigoted to do science and empirical research endangers marginalized students. The field has become insular.
The Dark Arts Examples From The Harris Adams Debate by Stabilizer (lesswrong) - The author accuses Scott Adams of using various dark Arts: Changing the subject, Motte-and-bailey, Euphemisation, Diagnosis, Excusing, Cherry-picking evidence.
Study Of The Week Modest But Real Benefits From Lead Exposure Interventions by Freddie deBoer - Freddie reviews a survey he found via SSC. The study had very good controls. Methodology is explained and key graphs are posted and discussed. Scott and Freddie seem to agree on the facts but have a different opinion on how large to consider the effects.
Descriptive And Prescriptive Standards by Simon Penner (Status 451) - Leadership means winning the Keynesian Beauty Contest. Public opinion doesn't exist as a stable reality. Prescribing public opinion. Dangers of social reform and leaders twisting the facts to promote noble outcomes.
A Taylorism For All Seasons by Lou (sam[]zdat) - "Christopher Lasch – The Culture of Narcissism, part 1/X, current essay being more of an overview." A Masquerade where you must act out the mask you choose.
Mechanism Agnostic Low Plasticity Educational Realism by Freddie deBoer - Freddie's educational philosophy. People sort into persistent academic strata. Educational attainment is heavily determined by factors outside of school's control. The mechanism differences in academic ability is unknown. Social and political implications.
Kin Aesthetics Excommunicate Me From The Church Of Social Justice by Frances Lee - A SJ-insider's critical opinion of SJ. Fear of being impure. Original Sin. Reproducing colonial structures of power and domination within social justice. Everyday Feminism's belittling articles. More humility. Bringing humanity to everyone, even those who have been inhumane.
Study Of The Week To Remediate Or Not To Remediate by Freddie deBoer - Should low math proficiency students take remedial algebra or credit bearing statistics. The City University of New York ran an actual randomized study to test this. The study had pretty good controls. For example students were randomly assigned to three groups, participating professors taught one section of each group.
Should We Build Lots More Housing In San Francisco: Three Reasons People Disagree by Julia Galef - For each of the three reasons Julia describes multiple sub-reasons. More housing might not lower prices much. More housing won't help the poor. NIMBY objections might be legitimate.
Kenneth Arrow On The Welfare Economics Of Medical Care A Critical Assessment by Artir (Nintil) - "Kenneth Arrow wrote a paper in 1963, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. This paper tends to appear in debates regarding whether healthcare can be left to the market (like bread), or if it should feature heavy state involvement. Here I explain what the paper says, and to what extent it is true."
Thoughts On Doxxing by Ozy (Thing of Things) - CNN found the identity of the guy who made the video of Trump beating up CNN. They implied they would dox him if he continued being racist. Is doxxing him ok? What about doxxing someone who runs jailbait? Ozy discusses the practical effect of doxxing and unleashing hate mobs.
On The Seattle Minimum Wage Study Part 2 by Zvi Moshowitz - Several relevant links are included. Seattle's economic boom and worker composition changes are important factors. Zvi dives deep into the numbers and tries to resolve an apparent contradiction.
Radical Book Club The Decentralized Left by davidzhines (Status 451) - The nature of leftwing organizing and what righties can learn from it. An exposition of multiple books on radical left organization building. Major themes are "doing the work" and "decentralized leadership".
On The Seattle Minimum Wage Study Part 1 by Zvi Moshowitz - The claimed effect sizes are huge. Zvi's priors about the minimum wage. Detailed description of some of the paper's methods and how it handle potential issues. Discussion of the raw data. More to come in part 2.
===Misc:
Childcare II by Jeff Kaufman - A timeline of childcare for Jeff's two children. Methods: Staying at home, Daycare, Au pair, Nanny.
Easier Chess Problem by protokol2020 - How many pieces do you need to capture a black queen?
Book Review Mathematics For Computer Science by richard_reitz (lesswrong) - Why the text should be in the MIRI research guide. Intro. Prereqs. Detailed comparisons to similar texts. Complaints.
Information is Physical by Scott Aaronson - Is information is physical a contentful expression? Why 'physics is information' is tautological. A proposed definition. Double slit experiment. Observation in Quantum Mechanics. Information takes up a minimum amount of space. Entropy. Information has nowhere to go.
Book Review Working Effectively With Legacy Code By Michael C Feathers by Eli Bendersky - To improve code we must refactor, to refactor we have to test, making code testable may take heroic efforts. "The techniques described by the author are as terrible as the code they're up against."
The Ominouslier Roar Of The Bitcoin Wave by Artem and Venkat (ribbonfarm) - A video visualizing and audiolizing the bitcoin blockchain. A related dialogue.
From Monkey Neurons To The Meta Brain by Hal Morris (ribbonfarm) - Neurons that only fire in response to Jennifer Anniston. Mirror Neurons. Theory of Mind. The path from copying movement to human-level empathy. Infant development. Dreams as social simulator. Communicating with our models of other people. He rapidly accelerating and dangerous future. We need to keep our mind open to possibilities.
Newtonism Question by protokol2020 - Balancing Forces. Gravity problem.
Short Interview Writing by Tyler Cowen - Tyler Cowen's writing habits. Many concrete details such as when he writes and what program he uses. Some more general thoughts on writing such as Tyler's surprising answer to which are his favorite books on writing.
Unexpected by protokol2020 - Discussion of gaps between primes. "Say, that you have just sailed across some recordly wide composite lake and you are on a prime island again. What can you expect, how much wider will the next record lake be?"
Interacting With A Long Running Child Process In Python by Eli Bendersky - Using the subprocess module to run an http server. Solutions and analysis of common use cases. Lots of code.
4d Mate Problem by protokol2020 - How many queens do you need to get a checkmate in 4D chess.
The Destruction Of American Cuisine by Small Truths - America used to have a tremendous number of regional cuisines, most are dead. They were killed by supermarkets and frozen food. This has been costly both in terms of culture and health (antibiotic resistance, crop monoculture risk)
===Podcast:
Sally Satel On Organ Donation by EconTalk - "The challenges of increasing the supply of donated organs for transplantation and ways that public policy might increase the supply." Tax Credits. The ethics of donor compensation.
Podcast The World Needs Ai Researchers Heres How To Become One by 80,000 Hours - "OpenAI’s latest plans and research progress. Concrete Papers in AI Safety, which outlines five specific ways machine learning algorithms can act in dangerous ways their designers don’t intend – something OpenAI has to work to avoid. How listeners can best go about pursuing a career in machine learning and AI development themselves."
88 Must We Accept A Nuclear North Korea by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Mark Bowden and the problem of a nuclear-armed North Korea."
Triggered by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Sam Harris and Scott Adams debate the character and competence of President Trump."
Conversation Atul Gawande by Tyler Cowen - The marginal value of health care, AI progress in medicine, fear of genetic engineering, whether the checklist method applies to marriage, FDA regulation, surgical regulation, Michael Crichton and Stevie Wonder, wearables, what makes him weep, Knausgaard and Ferrante, why surgeons leave sponges in patients.
Nneka Jones Tapia by The Ezra Klein Show - The first psychologist to run a prison. 30% of inmates have diagnosed mental health problems. Mental heath view of the penal system, balancing punishment and treatment, responsibility versus mental instability, the tension between what we use jail for and what we should use jail for.
Tamar Haspel by EconTalk - "Why technology helps make some foods inexpensive, how animals are treated, the health of the honey bee, and whether eggs from your backyard taste any better than eggs at the grocery."
From Cells To Cities by Waking Up with Sam Harris - "Biological and social systems scale, the significance of fractals, the prospects of radically extending human life, the concept of “emergence” in complex systems, the importance of cities, the necessity for continuous innovation"
Inside The World Of Supertraining: Mark Bell by Tim Feriss - "Mark’s most important lessons for building strength. How to avoid injury and breakdown. Lesser-known training techniques that nearly everyone overlooks. How Mark became a millionaire by offering his gym memberships for free."
Eddie Izzard by The Ezra Klein Show - 27 marathons in 27 days, process for writing jokes, why he wants to run for parliament, inspiration from Al Franken's, borrowing confidence from his future self. What he learned as a street performer, routines are based on history and anthropology, World War I, 'cake or death?'. His gender identity, and how he integrated it into his act early on, etc.
Martha Nussbaum by EconTalk - "The tension between acquiring power and living a life of virtue. Topics discussed include Hamilton's relationship with Aaron Burr, Burr's complicated historical legacy, and the role of the humanities in our lives."
Rs 188 Robert Kurzban On Being Strategically Wrong by Rationally Speaking - Why Everyone (Else) is a Hypocrite." The "modular mind" hypothesis, and how it explains hypocrisy, self-deception, and other seemingly irrational features of human nature.
submitted by deluks917_ to slatestarcodex [link] [comments]

vDinar - miners' coin from Yugoslavia

Some notes about what vDinar ISN'T before reading everything else: - not an ICO/token; - no premine; - no masternodes.
Also, vDinar is already running since 1st February 2018; this topic is not introducing you a still not published coin.
TL;DR (longer explanation below): vDinar is a coin with a local target and a new slightly improved ASIC-resistant algorithm. • For every new block mined 2% of the mining reward goes to a donations address to be spent in the former Yugoslav area. • Team of journalists behind ready to help implement vDinar in everyone's life with articles and content. • A social network, exclusively made for vDinar, in SerboCroatian language, without ads but sharing the latter news to its users to divulgate the coin. • New implementation of the original "adaptive N Scrypt" which sets the N factor based on blockchain dimensions instead of hardcoded timestamps. Renamed to vCrypt as mining vDinar requires a different protocol and users should instantly know wether their software supports it.
Longer explanation! Index: • Introduction ~ [1.1] Why vDinar? ~ [1.2] Is localization useful? • Plan ~ [2.1] 2% donations ~ [2.2] Informing people • Technical explanation ~ [3.1] vCrypt algorithm ~ [3.2] Block structure ~ [3.3] Mining • Miscellaneous ~ [*.1] Useful links
[1.1] Why vDinar? The Southern Slavic area is, even if people rarely mention it, a very profitable cryptocurrency mining area which is in fact, full of miners. Many, many miners behind your average currencies are from there. At the same moment it is not a very useful thing, if not for investment targets, to handle cryptocurrencies in our area where there is no information at all about them. vDinar takes in mind this and tries to introduce itself, as a cryptocurrency which could also make them understand better the whole system, to local people from our area: through articles, visual content and explanations.
[1.2] Is localization useful? We all admire the beauty of globally used currencies, which is great indeed, but some middle steps could help the whole revolution include usually uninterested people and let them gradually understand what they got in front of them. Making cryptocurrencies with virtual and hypotethical countrylines could bring much more to the table and give a last opportunity to those who were skeptical about cryptocurrencies until now. vDinar has an easily reimplementable code one could retake for eventual new localized coins.
[2.1] 2% donations By taking a little tax over mining rewards which is to be redistributed through manual donations to people in need from the Southern Slavic area, vDinar does both assure to be a socially useful project and to maintain its core localized target audience without direct limits to its foreign users. Donations will be spent when the coin will be valued enough.
[2.2] Informing people vDinar is a long time planned project. It is backed by newspapers and networks created and built in the last 4 years with the final target of supporting vDinar through its course. By finding new users every day, vDinar is now to be shared to its target audience made of average people from the Southern Slavic area. Documents, articles and explanations will be made to help people understand how it works and how it may help them in their daily life.
[3.1] vCrypt algorithm The original Scrypt algorithm with adaptive N factor is kept, but it is assigned based on the block's height instead of hardcoded timestamps. Why? Let's take in consideration we're doing this to avoid the eventual creation of integrated circuits for mining use and we want to keep general-purpose devices on the top. By changing the N factor we are therefore cancelling the already existent ASICs. How many coins could you do in a N timespan? If you assign N based on blockchain dimensions, you will get a fixed number; if you assign it to hardcoded timestamps, there is still some flexibility one could get from the answer. It could be rare that one would design an ASIC just because of difficulty-timespan flexibilities, but Scrypt-N currencies are supposed to increase, or in vDinar's case double, N timespans every round. It is better to keep this protocol unbreakable and avoid exceptions. vCrypt has been renamed so because of block structuring (see [3.2] "Block structure") issues one would get if mining it with an average Scrypt-N mining software. In order to avoid miscomprehensions it is now called in a different way so that occasional miners will instantly understand wether their software supports vDinar or not.
[3.2] Block structure In order to send a 2% donation from the mining reward to the donations address, vDinar's block structure includes not one but two coinbase (no-input) transactions: one sending the 98% to the miner, and a second one for the 2% donation. This little change makes a big difference when it comes to setting up a pool, a mining software or whatever software having to mess with vDinar's blocks! vDinar does not use any premine, as it would be speculative: every coin produced should be proof, as the PoW system itself expects it to be, of computational work. That's the reason vDinar rather goes through a hard revolutionary process by having to rebuild the whole system around (pools, miners, explorers and so on) than joining the mass. Take note: vDinar applies nonces to both coinbase transactions! (This may be very useful to know if you're preparing a vDinar compatible software).
[3.3] Mining Exception made for some mining softwares (ex.: ccminer) finding their solo-mining solutions in untraditional ways, mining is exclusively possible through vCrypt compatible softwares made for the evenience. As this exception goes fine for solo mining, it does not even work for pooled mining. vDinar's pooled mining runs on a different protocol which allows only compatible miners to know the needed data for building the hash merkle root with the second coinbase transaction (2% donations). When passing variables such as "coinb1" and "coinb2", a vDinar compatible stratum server sends two new values: "doncoinb1" and "doncoinb2", splitting the second coinbase transaction (just as for the first one). vDinar stratum pools also need to calculate merkle steps considering there's an empty space of two transactions instead of one. A miner is supposed to hash those two transactions and keep working with merkle steps (starting from the second merkle tree level) and their hashing result as if it was one only usual coinbase transaction.
[*.1] Useful links vDinar wallet: https://github.com/AndreaDejanGrande/vDinareleases *Both Windows and Linux
Svarog Miner, the first vDinar compatible mining software, runs on CPU and is also mostly made for educational purposes about vDinar's protocols: https://github.com/AndreaDejanGrande/Svarog/releases *Both Windows and Linux
Svarog Pool, the first vDinar compatible pool (note you can't mine there without compatible miners): https://svarog.jugoslaven.com
"Jugoslaven", the SerboCroatian social network made to share vDinar to average people: https://www.jugoslaven.com
BitcoinTalk announcement: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2864886
To the moon? To Mars, the red planet!
submitted by _d3j4n to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

PHP Bitcoin Node Status Script

This was posted a few months back, but after making a few changes and improvements thought it was worth posting again. TL;DR - thought it would be cool to be able to show off the status of my Bitcoin nodes to the world, so I wrote this project to do just that.
Live Demos: Tyr | Thor | Odin
Code: GitHub | Travis CI (Testing)
Features
The project has grown substantially since it was first released, and a lot of pretty neat features have been added at the request of the community. If you feel the script could do with some extra functionality, please do feel free to suggest it or even contribute it.
Information Display
All of the below information is optional and can be disabled via the script's configuration file:
Compatability
The PHP code has been tested with PHP 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6 as well as HHVM and Nightly builds, and the script can be modified to run against any node that uses the same RPC engine as Bitcoin - this includes Litecoin, and most Altcoins.
Contributions
Please feel free to comment, suggest (or better still, contribute!) new features or improvements - tips are also graciously accepted via changetip.
submitted by CraigWatson1987 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

CGB - Open Source Community Development and Marketing Strategy

Cryptogenic Bullion (CGB)
Open Source Community Development and Marketing Strategy

NOTE: This document has been totally replaced by CGB's new website which will incorporate all of the resources found here. http://cgb.holdings/marketing/

This document contains a collaborative framework for the community development and marketing strategy of the Cryptogenic Bullion cryptocurrency. It is intended to be updated by any member of the CGB community who has a new idea or believes they can refine an existing one. The document is open to the public because it serves as a document of logic and open debate. I believe that releasing the strategy itself might provide other deserving cryptos with some guidance to take their logical place in the ecosystem. This document contains the strengths of CGB, misconceptions about CGB, community resources, community development, viral marketing concepts and highlighted communities.
Anyone who wishes to discuss any part or offer updates can reply to either post. I will try to keep the post up to date. Please understand that I am an independent community advocate like yourself. I am only a small piece of the bigger picture and each must take their own initiative in order for this campaign to succeed.
Cryptogenic Bullion Strengths
Proof of Stake Eco-Security: Cryptogenic Bullion is a second generation cryptocurrency employing an advanced hybrid of legacy Proof of Work mining and Proof of Stake minting to secure the blockchain. This multi-pronged approach makes the "51% attack" a thing of the past. Not only would an attacker have to control half of the CPU power on the CGB network, but they would also have to own half of the total currency supply of CGB in order to attempt a "double-spend" attack. Although Proof of Stake can be used alone to protect the network, the legacy Proof of Work aspect of CGB remains as an additional security layer.
The power consumption of CGB will remain far lower than any other legacy Proof of Work cryptocurrency as most of the reward for securing the network is provided through Proof of Stake minting which can be completed quickly on a smart phone, instead of a supercomputer cluster.
Interest Bearing (1.5%): A major benefit of Proof of Stake minting is that you can pay yourself 1.5% interest on savings, without the need for a bank to take its cut. Compared to legacy Proof of Work systems which reward only those with mining equipment, the benefit is made directly to the people who maintain a savings of Cryptogenic Bullion. A Proof of Work mining incentive of 0.5% brings the yearly production of CGB to 2.0%; a rate modelled after the supply of gold.
Inflationary Stage Completed (rare): In order to distribute coins to the widest population base, cryptographic currencies rely on a mining protocol called Proof of Work. This puts new coins into the hands of those with mining equipment like a gaming PC, or a cutting edge server. It gives everyone a fair chance to adopt and spread the currency, but creates the volatility and downward price pressure seen in so many other cryptocurrencies. Cryptogenic Bullion is the only second generation cryptocurrency to have completed this inflationary stage due to its accelerated reward halving. Without this relentless dumping of new coins that almost all other cryptocurrrencies are now struggling against, Cryptogenic Bullion is ready to meet its market potential.
Active Developers and Community: The development team has proven itself to be publicly accountable to the CGB community and has built a reputation for dependability, transparency, and forward thinking. With this foundation, the CGB community is able to focus on extensive advertising and promotional efforts which have drawn in a diverse collection of individuals to the merits of Cryptogenic Bullion. With a social media focus we have been actively engaging many different markets through the use of, among other media, our Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/pages/Cryptogenic-Bullion/134177020124803), which has over 15,000 likes and CGB's twitter feed (https://twitter.com/CryptogenicBull) with a current following of over 400 individuals.
Misconceptions about Cryptogenic Bullion
Fast Mining/Inflation Stage: One common misconception about Cryptogenic Bullion is that its shorter mining/inflation stage has not given a wide enough range of individuals the chance to participate as early adopters. We must appreciate that this deployment method was chosen to avoid the long period of inflation which increases the volatility and stagnates most other cryptocurrencies in use today. The CGB community has been very active making every effort to get the word out about CGB and make it available on multiple exchanges. What is not realized is that CGB is still in the early adoption phase but instead of mining coins, the low price is what now enables early adopters to participate in this opportunity. CGB is only just now beginning to realize its potential to the discerning investor.
Community Resources
Highlighted Documents and Links
Community Development
In addition to helping to spread the word, there are other tasks which need to be undertaken in order to support the growth of our community. Any suggestions about areas of development are welcome.
  • Lightweight Blockchain Client: (Research Stage) See this post. This gives a client the ability to conduct transactions with a subset of the blockchain. It's useful for mobile applications and offline transaction signing. eg. BitcoinJ, Armory and Electrum
  • Expanded Wallet features: (Research Stage) We are looking to add some exciting new features to our wallet software including CGB network statistics and an RSS feed like functionality. All suggestions welcome!
  • Offline Transaction Signing: (Research Stage) This requires the above Lightweight Blockchain Client. eg. Bitcoin Trezor: This device contains a static environment which holds your private key for offline signing of transactions. This kind of technology is seriously needed for long term viability.
  • Wallet Software Speed Optimization: (Research Stage) Currently the CGB wallet software can take a couple minutes to load (or more depending on CPU). Some other crypto-currencies have been able to optimize their load times down to 15 seconds.
  • Dedicated CGB Forum: (In progress) A dedicated forum would be a nice touch.
  • CGB Wiki: (In testing phase) This will be of great value to us as we can logically create and arrange how-to documentation and all other kinds of information in an easy to navigate and reference repository.
  • Reddit Formatted Advertisements: (Requesting Ideas) We are in need of advertisements for CGB which are formatted 300px wide x 250px tall. These can be generic advertisements or targeted to a specific subreddit. These advertisements will link back to the /CryptogenicBullion subReddit to bring in new community members. For now buying ad space is voluntary but perhaps we may involve some kind of fund to help in the future. (Thanks hybridsole for bringing this up) Update: These functinos might not be as useful as we become more reliant on PoS for security, but might not be a bad idea anyhow, research required. (Artiface) In the future I would like to have the client have a nice visualisation of POS showing stake weight and an estimate of when stake should be generated.
  • Statistical Data: (Requesting Data) We need information to compare CGB to other coins. See: http://bitinfocharts.com/ This includes all kinds of data like technology comparison, coin variables, distribution, and all relevant attributes to be compared with each other.
Viral Marketing Concepts
Got Crypto?: I believe that this phrase has the power to turn Cryptogenic Bullion's slightly awkward name into an advantage. Not only is it a professional name appealing to the investment community, but it can be called 'Crypto' for short. No other coin can logically take this title with more credit than Cryptogenic Bullion. For example: http://i.imgur.com/BU1HSdC.jpg
CGB Vault: This viral concept involves locating high quality vault images and replacing the circular entrance with a translucent CGB logo. This can then include a slogan and or CGB Strengths. For example: http://i.imgur.com/JgSQkHw.jpg
CGB Bull: This viral concept involves making reference to spanish traditions of running with the bulls. A bull market is one which has established an up-trend in valuation. "2014 - Year of the BULLion!" "Run with the CGB Bulls!" etc. Any imagery involving actual bull runs and possibly subtle market chart imagery. Be careful not to appeal to greed, we don't need that kind of volatility. For example: http://i.imgur.com/Fe17cZE.png and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa-nfIksY4o
Crypto-Asset Trinity: As explained in this paper. A well functioning cryptographic asset market requires three roles to be filled: market gateway, adopted currency, and store of wealth. Bitcoin is the gateway that allows us to access so many markets especially USD of course. Dogecoin is riding a wave of excitement to be accepted by a wide array of merchants and businesses, creating an economy that doesn't require conversion back to government issued fiat as the people choose their own currency. Cryptogenic Bullion is the first crypto-currency to display all of the properties of money, while providing the bearer with interest for holding it. It is portable, divisible, fungible, scarce, low inflation, durable, non-consumable, and a store of wealth.
Crypto Stacking: I know I am not the only one who calls the contents of my CGB wallets a "stack." Some of us have found interest in crypto-currencies for the same reason that we may also hold physical Silver or Gold. Any parallels that can be drawn in imagery or wording to the "Silver Bug" community can be a fun way to promote value and inclusion.
Highlighted Communities
This marketing campaign will first focus on Reddit as our organization and jumping platform to other opportunities. The most effective ways that we can communicate with any community on Reddit is through submission of new ideas, content or links, and through discussion surrounding such a submission. The idea is to try to become more active in the community through informative discussion. If you are not familiar with Reddit, it is a place for content and link, sharing and discussion. It is important that you upvote only those comments and posts with true merit, and instead of downvoting, try to leave an informative or helpful comment. Try to promote CGB only where it is on-topic to do so. Otherwise, general discussion and debate often leads itself to such an opportunity.
When someone has located a post with discussion that could use some CGB community support, they will post a link to the post in the /GotCrypto subreddit with the prefix "Opportunity - ". /GotCrypto will be the collection point for opportunities that arise in various communities to convey logic, reason, and positive messages.
It's important to remember that every community we wish to interact with has its own unique perspective and strategies for contact. We know that any community is made up of members who belong to many other groups and communities; there is a lot of overlap. Our message needs to be as clear as possible and some of the best insights will come from these people. The purpose of this section is to enable these and all other CGB supporters to learn about and understand the most effective ways to communicate with the highlighted community. As this document is updated we should try to build a full picture of each community including:
  • Where they can be found
  • General level of understanding
  • Interaction Notes
  • Opportunities
  • Common Misconceptions
Communities:
submitted by papersheepdog to GotCrypto [link] [comments]

[ Learn PHP 5 In Arabic ] #80 - Predefined Variables - Server PHP Server Variable  $_SERVER variable  Easy Example in ... Super Global Variable in PHP (Hindi) - YouTube Lesson 3 - So You Want To Use Bitcoin On Your Website? Block IP Addresses In PHP LIVE CODING Part 1

Hacker Noon reflects the technology industry with unfettered stories and opinions written by real tech professionals. We believe we can get closer to the truth by elevating thousands of voices. I mean from the client side, not the server side. A client who wouldn't have access to raw PHP code. The other article also lists "any other 'HTTP_' value" under client side set. – Grumpy May 1 '15 at 13:58 Hidden surprises in the Bitcoin blockchain and how they are stored: Nelson Mandela, Wikileaks, photos, and Python software Every Bitcoin transaction is stored in the distributed database known as the Bitcoin blockchain. However, people have found ways to hack the Bitcoin protocol to store more than just transactions. I've searched through the blockchain and found many strange and interesting ... build: add compiler options to forbid unused local variables and para… Mar 3, 2019. tslint.json. Add tslint to tests. Sep 12, 2019. View code README.md BitcoinJS (bitcoinjs-lib) A javascript Bitcoin library for node.js and browsers. Written in TypeScript, but committing the JS files to verify. Released under the terms of the MIT LICENSE. Should I use this in production? If you are thinking ... Bitcoin mining is a scraping activity that is exercised by a combination of dozens of different variables. Variables such as the devices used in bitcoin mining , operating frequency of the devices, processing forces, physical environment, health of the power line, the program used, the platform used, market conditions, the total amount of bitcoin excavated reveal how long a bitcoin will be ex

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[ Learn PHP 5 In Arabic ] #80 - Predefined Variables - Server

part 3 Server Side Scripting PHP Variables functions loop HSc IT Chapter 5 class 12th science Server side scripting PHP chapter 5 HSC IT(Information Technolo... Table of Contents: 00:00 - 26.4 Viewing Client/Server Environment Variables 00:38 - 26.4 Viewing Client/Server Environment Variables 00:51 - 01:51 - 26.4 Viewing Client/Server Environment Variables. How to Make a Bitcoin Price Widget Javascript, PHP, CSS & HTML - Duration: ... How to give your bitcoin node commands using a web server - Duration: 21:06. m1xolyd1an 991 views. 21:06 . Facebook ... Todays live coding challenge is to block IP's after a number of requests in PHP. So we are going to look at the PHP session and server variables. === Part Tw... This video contains one of PHP server variables : $_SERVER variable, which returns the information about server.

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